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Valentine IV

Valentine IV


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Valentine IV

The Valentine IV was powered by a G.M.C. model used on the Mk II, but was otherwise similar to the earlier model.

The original Valentine I had been powered by a petrol engine, but on the Mk II that had been replaced by a 131hp A.E.C. engine. On the Mk IV that was replaced by a 138hp G.M.C. 6-71 diesel engine. This was a six-cylinder two-stroke diesel engine, with a good reputation for reliability and low engine noise. The transmission was a Spicer synchromesh gearbox with five forward speeds.

It retained the original two-man turret of the Mk I and Mk II, and the 2-pounder gun and coaxial Besa machine gun.

The Mk II and Mk IV entered combat in November 1942 with 8th RTR during Operation Crusader in North Africa.

Names
Valentine IV

Stats
Production:
Hull Length: 5m 41cm/ 17ft 9in
Hull Width: 2m 63cm/ 8ft 7.5in
Height: 2m 27cm/ 7ft 5.5in
Crew: 3
Weight: 16,500kg/ 16.2 tons
Engine: 138hp GMC 6-71 Model 6004
Max Speed on road: 24km/h/ 15mph
Max Speed off road: 18km/h / 11mph
Max Range: 176km/ 109 miles
Armament: QF 2-pounder Mk IX, 7.92mm Besa machine gun
Armour:

Armour
Turret front: 65mm
Turret sides: 60mm
Nose: 60mm at 21 degrees
Glacis plate: 30mm at 68 degrees
Hull sides: 60mm vertical


British Tank Matilda, Valentine

The USA tank, Britain and Canada supplied 22,800 armoured vehicles to the USSR during World War II. Of these, 1981 were lost at sea on the hazardous Arctic convoys to Murmansk. The shipments that did arrive were the equivalent of 16 percent of Soviet tank production, 12 percent of self-propelled gun production, and all of the armoured personnel carrier (APC) production. The first shipment in 1941 totalled 487 Matildas, Valentines and Tetrachs from Britain, and 182 M3A1 Light Tanks and M3 Medium Tanks from the USA. A year later, these figures had risen to 2487 from Britain and 3023 from the USA.

Despite being pressed in North Africa, Britain committed 14 percent of her tank production to Lend-Lease supplies. Though Lend-Lease tanks helped the USSR while it was under serious pressure between 1941 and 1942 after it had suffered huge tank losses, in the long run, US trucks were the real war winners. The USA supplied 501,660 tactical wheeled-and tracked vehicles: 77,972 Jeeps, 151,053 1.01 tonne (1 ton) trucks and 200,662 2.03 tonne (2 ton) trucks. These gave the infantry and logistic troops working with them a tactical mobility. The initials 'USA tank' stencilled on these vehicles were in the USSR taken to stand for the slogan 'Ubiyat Sukinsyna Adolfa - Kill that son of a whore Adolf'.

In the Cold War period, it was common for Soviet tank historians to denigrate the quality of the Lend-Lease tanks supplied by Britain and the USA. It is true that the it medium tanks did not compare well against the T-34. However, the M3A1 light tank was comparable or superior to the T-60 and T-70 light tanks, and the M4A2 Sherman was more durable and re liable than the T-34. lnterestingly, in post-war encounters between the Sherman and T-34 in Korea and the Middle East, the M4 often came off the winner, even though it was theoretically an inferior design. The first unit to go into action with Lend-Lease armour was in the Staraya Russa and Valdai areas, fielding Valentines, Matildas and captured German tanks.

THE VICKERS-ARMSTRONG VALENTINE

The Russians admired the robust and simple automotive design of the 1940 British Mk III Valentine tank, but were merely polite about the tank's main armament, which fell well below Eastern From requirements. Some tanks had their main armament replaced by 76.2mm (3in) guns in factories in the USSR. The narrow tracks were also reported to be a problem in wimer, first clogging with snow, then freezing, and immobilizing the vehicle.

Designed by Vickers-Armstrong in 1938, the Valentine tank was a private venture project drawing on their experience with the A9 and A10 Cruiser designs. Rather quaintly, the Valentine took its name from the fact that its plans were submitted to the War Office close to the date of St Valentine's Day in February. The War Office took over a year to make up its mind, since there were some reservations about the two-man turret, which was thought to be too small to be up-gunned. However, when they committed to the project, they requested that Vickers-Armstrong make the first delivery in the shortest time possible.

Production ceased in 1944 after a total of 8275 tanks had been built by three companies, representing a quarter of British tank output. There had been plans to stop production in 1943 on grounds of obsolescence, but it had continued for the extra year to satisfy Soviet requirements. The Valentine was produced in Britain by Metropolitan-Cammell and Birmingham Carriage & Wagon, as well as Vickers, and in Canada by Canadian Pacific of Montreal here, of the 1420 Mk VI tanks produced, all but the 30 retained for training went to the Soviet Army.

The Valentine was originally armed with a 2pdr (40mm (1.57 in)) gun, but this was upgraded to a 6pdr (57mm (2.24 in)) gun in the Mark VIII, IX and X. The Mark XI, fitted with a 75mm (2.95in) gun, was the final production type. Reliability and performance was improved when a GMC two-stroke diesel was installed, replacing the AEC petrol or diesel engines. Production speeded up when all-welded construction replaced all- riveted.

THE MATILDA INFANTRY SUPPORT TANK

The British Matilda II (A 12) has the distinction of being the only British tank to serve throughout the whole of World War II, a rare fear for any tank. The British sent 1084 to the USSR, where it was second only to the Valentine as the most common type of British tank in Soviet service. Proposals by the British Mechanization Board to produce a tank with the same level of protection as the Matilda tank I, but armed with either a 2pdr (40mm (1.57 in)) gun or twin machine guns, produced the Matilda Senior or Matilda II.

The Matilda II was originally built at the Vulcan Foundry at Warrington, where Fowler and Rusron & Hornby under Vulcan's parentage, and later with LMS, Harland & Wolff and North British Locomotive. When production ceased, a total of 2987 Matilda IIs had been built.

Though the armour protection was excellent, it was produced using a timeconsuming and expensive casting process, and later, when there were attempts to up-gun the tank, the turret ring was found to be too small to take a larger-calibre weapon. In Soviet service, sections of steel bar were welded to the tracks to give better traction in snow and mud. The Matilda tank was more heavily armoured than the T-60 and T-70, and so was used as an infantry support tank.


St. Valentine

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St. Valentine, (died 3rd century, Rome feast day February 14), name of one or two legendary Christian martyrs whose lives seem to be historically based. Although the Roman Catholic Church continues to recognize St. Valentine as a saint of the church, he was removed from the General Roman Calendar in 1969 because of the lack of reliable information about him. He is the patron saint of lovers, epileptics, and beekeepers.

By some accounts, St. Valentine was a Roman priest and physician who suffered martyrdom during the persecution of Christians by the emperor Claudius II Gothicus about 270. He was buried on the Via Flaminia, and Pope Julius I reportedly built a basilica over his grave. Other narratives identify him as the bishop of Terni, Italy, who was martyred, apparently also in Rome, and whose relics were later taken to Terni. It is possible these are different versions of the same original account and refer to only one person.

According to legend, St. Valentine signed a letter “from your Valentine” to his jailer’s daughter, whom he had befriended and healed from blindness. Another common legend states that he defied the emperor’s orders and secretly married couples to spare the husbands from war.

Valentine’s Day as a lovers’ festival dates at least from the 14th century.


St. Valentine beheaded

On February 14, around the year 270 A.D., Valentine, a holy priest in Rome in the days of Emperor Claudius II, was executed.

Under the rule of Claudius the Cruel, Rome was involved in many unpopular and bloody campaigns. The emperor had to maintain a strong army, but was having a difficult time getting soldiers to join his military leagues. Claudius believed that Roman men were unwilling to join the army because of their strong attachment to their wives and families.

To get rid of the problem, Claudius banned all marriages and engagements in Rome. Valentine, realizing the injustice of the decree, defied Claudius and continued to perform marriages for young lovers in secret.

When Valentine’s actions were discovered, Claudius ordered that he be put to death. Valentine was arrested and dragged before the Prefect of Rome, who condemned him to be beaten to death with clubs and to have his head cut off. The sentence was carried out on February 14, on or about the year 270.

Legend also has it that while in jail, St. Valentine left a farewell note for the jailer’s daughter, who had become his friend, and signed it 𠇏rom Your Valentine.”

For his great service, Valentine was named a saint after his death.

In truth, the exact origins and identity of St. Valentine are unclear. According to the Catholic Encyclopedia, 𠇊t least three different Saint Valentines, all of them martyrs, are mentioned in the early martyrologies under the date of 14 February.” One was a priest in Rome, the second one was a bishop of Interamna (now Terni, Italy) and the third St. Valentine was a martyr in the Roman province of Africa.

Legends vary on how the martyr’s name became connected with romance. The date of his death may have become mingled with the Feast of Lupercalia, a pagan festival of love. On these occasions, the names of young women were placed in a box, from which they were drawn by the men as chance directed. In 496 A.D., Pope Gelasius decided to put an end to the Feast of Lupercalia, and he declared that February 14 be celebrated as St. Valentine’s Day.

Gradually, February 14 became a date for exchanging love messages, poems and simple gifts such as flowers.


St. Valentine was not a romantic

The third third-century Valentinus was a bishop of Terni in the province of Umbria, Italy.

St. Valentine kneeling. David Teniers III

According to his equally dodgy legend, Terni’s bishop got into a situation like the other Valentinus by debating a potential convert and afterward healing his son. The rest of story is quite similar as well: He too, was beheaded on the orders of Emperor Gothicus and his body buried along the Via Flaminia.

It is likely, as the Bollandists suggested, that there weren’t actually two decapitated Valentines, but that two different versions of one saint’s legend appeared in both Rome and Terni.

Nonetheless, African, Roman or Umbrian, none of the Valentines seems to have been a romantic.

Indeed, medieval legends, repeated in modern media, had St. Valentine performing Christian marriage rituals or passing notes between Christian lovers jailed by Gothicus. Still other stories romantically involved him with the blind girl whom he allegedly healed. Yet none of these medieval tales had any basis in third-century history, as the Bollandists pointed out.

St. Valentine baptizing St. Lucilla. Jacopo Bassano (Jacopo da Ponte)

In any case, historical veracity did not count for much with medieval Christians. What they cared about were stories of miracles and martyrdoms, and the physical remains or relics of the saint. To be sure, many different churches and monasteries around medieval Europe claimed to have bits of a St. Valentinus’ skull in their treasuries.

Santa Maria in Cosmedin in Rome, for example, still displays a whole skull. According to the Bollandists, other churches across Europe also claim to own slivers and bits of one or the other St. Valentinus’ body: For example, San Anton Church in Madrid, Whitefriar Street Church in Dublin, the Church of Sts. Peter and Paul in Prague, Saint Mary’s Assumption in Chelmno, Poland, as well as churches in Malta, Birmingham, Glasgow, and on the Greek isle of Lesbos, among others.

For believers, relics of the martyrs signified the saints’ continuing their invisible presence among communities of pious Christians. In 11th-century Brittany, for instance, one bishop used what was purported to be Valentine’s head to halt fires, prevent epidemics, and cure all sorts of illnesses, including demonic possession.

As far as we know, though, the saint’s bones did nothing special for lovers.


Valentine's Day History

Roman Roots

The history of Valentine's Day is obscure, and further clouded by various fanciful legends. There are some suggestions that the holiday's roots are in the ancient Roman festival of Lupercalia, a fertility celebration commemorated annually on February 15. Pope Gelasius I recast this pagan festival as a Christian feast day circa 496, declaring February 14 to be St. Valentine's Day.

Valentines Galore

Which St. Valentine this early pope intended to honor remains a mystery: according to the Catholic Encyclopedia, there were at least three early Christian saints by that name. One was a priest in Rome, another a bishop in Terni, and of a third St. Valentine almost nothing is known except that he met his end in Africa. Rather astonishingly, all three Valentines were said to have been martyred on Feb. 14.

Most scholars believe that the St. Valentine of the holiday was a priest who attracted the disfavor of Roman emperor Claudius II around 270. At this stage, the factual ends and the mythic begins. According to one legend, Claudius II had prohibited marriage for young men, claiming that bachelors made better soldiers (although there is no record of the alleged ban). Valentine continued to secretly perform marriage ceremonies but was eventually apprehended by the Romans and put to death. Another legend has it that Valentine, imprisoned by Claudius, fell in love with the daughter of his jailer. Before he was executed, he allegedly sent her a letter signed "from your Valentine." Probably the most plausible story surrounding St. Valentine is one not focused on Eros (passionate love) but on agape (love of God): he was martyred for refusing to renounce his religion.

In 1969, the Catholic Church revised its liturgical calendar, removing the feast days of saints whose historical origins were questionable. St. Valentine was one of the casualties.

Chaucer's Love Birds

It was not until the 14th century that this Christian feast day became definitively associated with love. According to UCLA medieval scholar Henry Ansgar Kelly, author of Chaucer and the Cult of Saint Valentine, it was Chaucer who first linked St. Valentine's Day with romance.

In 1381, Chaucer composed a poem in honor of the engagement between England's Richard II and Anne of Bohemia. As was the poetic tradition, Chaucer associated the occasion with a feast day. In "The Parliament of Fowls," the royal engagement, the mating season of birds, and St. Valentine's Day are linked:

For this was on St. Valentine's Day,
When every fowl cometh there to choose his mate.

Tradition of Valentine's Cards

Over the centuries, the holiday evolved, and by the 18th century, gift-giving and exchanging handmade cards on Valentine's Day had become common in England. Hand-made valentine cards made of lace, ribbons, and featuring cupids and hearts eventually spread to the American colonies. The tradition of Valentine's cards did not become widespread in the United States, however, until the 1850s, when Esther A. Howland, a Mount Holyoke graduate and native of Worcester, Mass., began mass-producing them. Today, of course, the holiday has become a booming commercial success. According to the Greeting Card Association, 25% of all cards sent each year are valentines.


TankNutDave.com

The British World War 2 Valentine Tank nick-name should not be confused with a romantic relationship the British Army had with what was a successful design and represented 25% of the total tank production in the UK during World War 2, but rather the day Vickers submitted its design to the War Office.

Production commenced around 1940, with a total of 3 UK firms manufacturing the vehicle – Vickers, Metropolitan Cammell and Birmingham Carriage, which totalled 8275 when production ended in 1944. It was also built in Canada (numbers 1420) where they were shipped to Russia under the Lenda-Lease program.

Series

Valentine I (Tank, Infantry, Mk III)

The first model of the Valentine, it was not sent out due to problems from rushed production. The tank had riveted hull, was powered by AEC A189 135 hp petrol engine and equipped with a 2 pdr. gun and a coaxial Besa machine gun. Its two-man turret forced the commander to also act as the gun-loader.

Valentine II (Tank, Infantry, Mk III*)

The British World War 2 Valentine Tank

This model used AEC A190 131 hp diesel engine. In order to increase its range, an auxiliary external fuel tank was installed to the left of the engine compartment.

Valentine III

The British World War 2 Valentine Tank

A larger turret was installed, allowing the addition of a dedicated loader to ease the duties of the commander. The side armour was reduced from 60 mm to 50 mm to save weight.

Valentine IV

A Mark II using an American 138 hp GMC 6004 diesel engine and US-made transmission. Though it had slightly shorter range, it was quieter and more reliable.

Valentine V

Valentine III with the GMC 6004 diesel engine and US-made transmission.

Valentine VI

Canadian-built version of IV. It used some Canadian and American mechanical parts. Late production vehicles had cast glacis detail. First few produced with a 7.92 mm Besa coaxial machinegun, soon replaced by a 0.30 inch Browning coaxial machinegun.

Valentine VII

Another Canadian version, it was essentially the VI with internal changes and a different radio set.

Valentine VIIA

Mark VII with jettisonable fuel tanks, new studded tracks, and protected headlights.

Valentine VIII

A III upgraded with the QF 6-pounder gun. In order to fit it, the coaxial machinegun and the loader crew member had to be removed. The side armour was reduced again. Crews came up with a novel way of using a machinegun from inside the hull by fitting a solenoid-fired Browning MG into a 6-pdr shell-case. When needed, this was inserted into the 6-pdr breech and the solenoid cable connected, allowing the gunner to aim it using the main gun elevating gear, traverse and telescope.

Valentine IX

The British World War 2 Valentine Tank

A V upgraded to the 6 pdr gun. Similar armour reduction as the VIII. On late production units an upgraded, 165 hp version of the GMC 6004 diesel was installed, somewhat improving mobility.

Valentine X

A new turret design and 165 hp engine. A Besa coaxial machinegun was fitted again. Welded construction.

Valentine XI

An X upgraded with the OQF 75 mm gun and 210 hp version of the GMC 6004 diesel. Welded construction. Only served as a command tank.

Variants

Valentine DD

The British World War 2 Valentine Tank

Valentine Mk V, IX and Mk XI, made amphibious by the use of Nicholas Straussler’s Duplex Drive. Used by crews training for the M4 Sherman DD tanks of the Normandy Landings.

Valentine OP / Command

Observation Post and command version with extra radios. To give more space inside, the gun was replaced with a dummy.

Valentine CDL

A continuation of the Canal Defence Light experiments. The conventional turret was replaced with one containing a searchlight.

Valentine Scorpion II



Mine exploder, turret-less with flail attachment. Never used operationally.

Valentine AMRA Mk Ib



Mine exploder with Armoured Mine Roller Attachment. Never used operationally.

Valentine Snake

Mine exploder, using Snake mine clearing equipment. Few used operationally.

Valentine Bridge-layer



An armoured bridge-laying vehicle a turret-less Mk II fitted with 34 ft x 9.5 ft Class 30 scissors bridge. Several dozen were produced, some of them supplied to the USSR.

Valentine with 6pdr anti-tank mounting

Experimental vehicle built by Vickers-Armstrong to examine the possibility of producing a simple tank destroyer by mounting the 6pdr in its field carriage on the hull in place of the turret. Trials only, 1942.

Valentine Flamethrowers

Two Valentine tanks were modified to carry flamethrowers. These were tested by the Petroleum Warfare Department to determine which system was best for a tank-mounted flame projector. One used a projector ignited by cordite charges and one used a projector operated by gas pressure. The flamethrower fuel was carried in a trailer and the flame projector was mounted on the hull front. Trials started in 1942 and it showed that the gas-operated system was better. From this test installation was developed the Crocodile equipment for the Churchill Crocodile flamethrower used in the North West Europe campaign in 1944-45.

Valentine 7.92in flame mortar



Experimental vehicle with turret replaced by fixed heavy mortar intended to fire 25 lb TNT incendiary shells to demolish concrete emplacements. Trials only by Petroleum Warfare Dept, 1943-45. Effective range was 400 yards (maximum range 2,000 yards).


Contents

In the third century A.D., Valentine was the bishop of Terni (Italy). He performed weddings for couples who were not allowed to get married. They may not have been allowed to get married because the parents did not agree with the connection or because the bridegroom was a soldier or a slave, so the marriage was forbidden. Valentine gave the married couple flowers from his garden. That's why flowers play a very important role on Valentine's Day. This did not please the emperor. On February 14, 269 AD, Valentine was beheaded because of his Christian faith.

An expansion of the legend combines the day of death of Valentine with the Roman festival Lupercalia. It was the festival of the great goddess Lupa, which is the feminine word for wolf. She was the Great She-Wolf who nursed the twin babies, Romulus and Remus, who later became the founders of Rome. During the annual ceremony, the temple priestesses (lupae) wrote their names on strips of papyrus. These were picked by young men. After the lottery, the youngsters walked through the city and got the blessings of the citizens. The martyr Valentine became the patron saint of the lovers. Still in the Middle Ages, as in France or in Belgium, people were chosen by the lottery to live a year with each other and people prayed to Saint Valentine to make love potions and charms.

In the 19th century, the custom of sending Valentine's Cards became very popular. The cards usually have pictures of hearts or flowers and contain some sort of poem, message, or code. Codes and simple messages give some people the courage to show their true feelings to the person they love. Today, some people still use mysterious codes to show their love. People can use newspapers to give a coded message to their loved one, giving other readers a view of the couples' intimacy with one another. Sometimes they will give each other chocolates.

Famous for the popularity of the celebration is the folk song called "Die Vogelhochzeit" ("The Birds' Wedding").

In China, a holiday called Qi Xi is also called "Chinese Valentine's Day", especially by younger people. Qi Xi is traditionally held on the 7th day of the 7th month of the lunar calendar. In recent years, it has become more like Valentine's Day in other countries.


Saint Valentine was a Catholic priest who had also worked as a doctor. He lived in Italy during the third century AD and served as a priest in Rome.

Historians don’t know much about Valentine’s early life. They pick up Valentine’s story after he began working as a priest. Valentine became famous for marrying couples who were in love but couldn’t get legally married in Rome during the reign of Emperor Claudius II, who outlawed weddings. Claudius wanted to recruit lots of men to be soldiers in his army and thought that marriage would be an obstacle to recruiting new soldiers. He also wanted to prevent his existing soldiers from getting married because he thought that marriage would distract them from their work.

When Emperor Claudius discovered that Valentine was performing weddings, he sent Valentine to jail. Valentine used his time in jail to continue to reach out to people with the love that he said Jesus Christ gave him for others.

He befriended his jailer, Asterious, who became so impressed with Valentine’s wisdom that he asked Valentine to help his daughter, Julia, with her lessons. Julia was blind and needed someone to read material for her to learn it. Valentine became friends with Julia through his work with her when she came to visit him in jail.

Emperor Claudius also came to like Valentine. He offered to pardon Valentine and set him free if Valentine would renounce his Christian faith and agree to worship the Roman gods. Not only did Valentine refuse to leave his faith, he also encouraged Emperor Claudius to place his trust in Christ. Valentine’s faithful choices cost him his life. Emperor Claudius was so enraged at Valentine’s response that he sentenced Valentine to die.


The Origin of Valentine's Day Might Surprise You&mdashHere's What to Know

While it may be tempting to think of Valentine's Day as a modern holiday meant just for indulging our shopping and sugary impulses, this day of heart-shaped festivity actually has an ancient&mdashand fascinating&mdashorigin story. or rather, mystery. While we celebrate Valentine's Day today with DIY Valentine's Day cards, gifts of jewelry or flowers, and romantic Valentine's Day dinners, the history of the holiday is actually quite surprising (get ready to queue up those Valentine's Day Instagram captions with some shocking trivia!).

So how did February 14 first come to be considered the day of love? And what's the origin of Valentine's Day&mdashand why have its romantic themes persisted to this day? Oh, and while we're at it, where does the word "Valentine" come from?

As it turns out, nobody really knows the true history behind this storied holiday, nor do any of the theories completely check out. Even historians find themselves arguing over the exact traditions from which the present-day holiday takes inspiration.

But we're sharing as much as we know about the topic, including the murky origin of Valentine's Day and its interesting history. Its backstory&mdashthough not confirmed&mdashis actually quite dark and even a bit bloody. Strange traditions, pagan rituals, and grisly executions abound. If you're not faint of heart, though, you'll enjoy learning about everything we've compiled here. Who knows? It might even inform your Valentine's Day wishes!

Where does the word Valentine come from?

The day is named, of course, for St. Valentine&mdashwe all know that by now. But why? Who is this mysterious Valentine?

According to The New York Times, it's possible that the love-filled holiday is based on a combination of two men. There were, after all, two Valentines executed on February 14 (albeit in different years) by Emperor Claudius II, reports NPR.It's believed that the Catholic Church may have established St. Valentine's Day in order to honor these men, who they believed to be martyrs. What's more, it's possible that one of these men, Saint Valentine of Terni, had been secretly officiating weddings for Roman soldiers against the emperor's wishes, making him, in some eyes, a proponent of love.

Another story involves the practice of writing love letters to your Valentine. It's said that St. Valentine wrote the first &ldquovalentine&rdquo greeting to a young girl he tutored and fell in love with while he was imprisoned for the crimes outlined above. According to The History Channel, before his death, he wrote her a letter signed &ldquoFrom your Valentine," which remains a commonly used phrase to this day.

Others believe that St. Valentine's Day was actually designated by Pope Gelasius I in order to replace the ancient Roman festival Lupercalia, a celebration of fertility dedicated to the Roman god of agriculture, Faunas, and Roman founders Romulus and Remus.

The feast of debauchery fell around the same time and involved a ritual where an order of Roman priests ran naked through the streets, "gently slapping" women with the blood-soaked hides of sacrificed animals (yes, really), which they believed promoted fertility. Following this flagellation was a tradition in which men selected women's names at random from a jar to decide who would remain together for the next year, or, if they fell in love, they'd marry.

However, a University of Kansas English professor, the late Jack B. Oruch, had a different theory, notes the Times: Through research, he determined that the poet Geoffrey Chaucer linked love with St. Valentine for the first time in his 14th-century works "The Parlement of Foules" and "The Complaint of Mars." Therefore, Oruch claimed that Chaucer invented Valentine's Day as we know it today. (At the time of Chaucer's writing, February 14 also happened to be considered the first day of spring in Britain, because it was the beginning of birds' mating season&mdashperfectly appropriate for a celebration of affection.)

Why do we celebrate Valentines Day?

Whether or not Chaucer can be fully credited, it is true that he and fellow writer Shakespeare popularized the amorous associations surrounding the day. Soon, people began penning and exchanging love letters to celebrate Valentine's Day, and by the early 1910s, an American company that would one day become Hallmark began distributing its more official "Valentine's Day cards." Flowers, candy, jewelry, and more followed, and the rest, of course, is history.

What part does Cupid play on Valentine's Day?

It's not all about St. Valentine! Cupid&mdashthat winged baby boy often seen on Valentine's Day cards and paraphernalia&mdashis another symbol of this love-filled holiday, and it's easy to understand why. In Roman mythology, Cupid was the son of Venus, goddess of love and beauty. He was known for shooting arrows at both gods and humans, causing them to fall instantly in love with one another. While it's unclear exactly when Cupid was brought into the Valentine's Day story, it's certainly clear why.


Watch the video: Valentine IV (July 2022).


Comments:

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  3. Oenomaus

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  4. Amazu

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