Civic Definitions- What is the meaning of Ethnicity - History

Civic Definitions- What is the meaning of Ethnicity - History

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Ethnicity - a set of characteristics which result in a distinctive culture, in which a group of people share. In the United States, ethnicity is a term that is somewhat flexible in meaning, but generally refers to a subset of the national culture in which people share one of more of the following characteristics: race, nationality, religion, ancestry, or language. Ethnicity sometimes refers to the group of people, as well as the culture itself


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Difference Between Nationalism And Civic Nationalism

Ethnic Nationalism Source of Communities of Fear Nationalism, according to the most widely accepted definitions of, is the doctrine that the state and the nation should be congruent. However, there is much more to add to the definition of nationalism today in connection to the ethnic and civil society. The definition of nationalism depends on its context. The typology of nationalism defines its strength and/or weakness to its relationship among the community in which it’s defined. While civil nationalism accepts people for who they are in the unique condition that they accept the country’s constitution, ethnic nationalism goes beyond and requires that the community should share a common culture which can be racial, ethnic group, language or&hellip

Learned Behavior

Ethnicity, unlike race, is not based on biological traits, except in the case of ethnic groups that recognize certain traits as requirements for membership. In other words, the cultural elements that define a particular ethnic group are taught, not inherited.

This means that the boundaries between ethnic groups are, to some degree, fluid, allowing for individuals to move between groups. This can happen, for example, when a child from one ethnic group is adopted into another, or when an individual undergoes a religious conversion.

It can also happen through the process of acculturation, whereby members of a native group are forced to adopt the culture and manners of a dominating host group.

Ethnicity should not be confused with nationality, which refers to citizenship. While some countries are largely composed of a single ethnic group (Egypt, Finland, Germany, China), others are composed of many different groups (United States, Australia, Philippines, Panama).

The rise of nation-states in Europe in the 1600s led to the creation of many countries that are still ethnically homogenous today. The population of Germany, for example, is 91.5 percent German.

Countries that were founded as colonies, on the other hand, are more likely to be home to multiple ethnicities.

What Does 'Kiwanis' Mean? The Stories Behind 4 Civic Groups

You've heard their names and seen their logos. You've probably watched them march in parades, donated money to one of their charities, or played on a Little League team they sponsored. But what, exactly, do these civic organizations do?

1. Knights of Columbus

Founded: The Knights of Columbus (K of C) is a Catholic men's organization officially chartered in 1882 by Father Michael McGivney and a handful of his parishioners. Their name was inspired by Christopher Columbus, as they felt they were carrying on his mission of spreading Catholicism across the globe.

Mission: One of K of C's primary focuses is offering low-cost insurance to Catholic families in order to provide for them should the primary breadwinner be injured or pass away. However, on a broader spectrum, they also offer many community services such as clothing, food, shelter, and family counseling to those in need. Since 2000, their community outreach programs include the donation of $1.3 billion to various charities and over 626 million hours of volunteer service. Most recently they gave $500,000 and purchased 1,000 wheelchairs for relief efforts in Haiti after the earthquake that devastated the country.

Members: 1.7 million members in 13,000 councils throughout the Western Hemishphere

Notable Members:

President John F. Kennedy Samuel Alito, Associate Justice of the U.S. Supreme Court Vince Lombardi, Green Bay Packers head coach and Super Bowl trophy namesake Jerry Orbach, "Detective Briscoe" from TV's Law & Order

Fun Fact: The group sponsors The Knights of Columbus Vatican Film Library in St. Louis, Missouri, one of the world's largest collections of microfilmed manuscripts copied from the Vatican Library and many other notable institutions. More than 37,000 medieval manuscripts, totaling over 12,000,000 pages, are available for academic study.

2. The Lions Club

Founded: The Lions started as a group of businessmen who got together for lunch. One member, Melvin Jones, wondered aloud what would happen if these men of intelligence and ambition were to turn their efforts towards bettering their community. Figuring there was power in numbers, they invited similar business groups to join them in their civic cause. Borrowing the name of one of these groups, Lions Club International was founded shortly after in 1917.

Mission: The Lions offer many different types of services in their communities, including food and clothing drives, health screenings, and child immunizations. But the Lions are best known for assisting the blind and sight impaired, as well as promoting good eye health for all. Aside from vision screenings, they run eyeglass recycling centers, which send out thousands of donated specs to needy people. They also maintain Lions Eye Banks that provide tissue for 30,000 eye surgeries every year. The Lions are lending a hand in Haiti, too, with over $2.2 million to help provide support services for people in need.

Members: 1.3 million men and women from 45,000 clubs in 205 countries

Fun Fact: The Lions made eye care their mission after none other than Helen Keller asked the organization to become "knights of the blind in the crusade against darkness" during their 1925 national convention. To support this mission, the Lions have been selling brooms made by blind craftsmen for decades. Profits from the brooms go to help the Lions' work.

3. Kiwanis

Founded: The Kiwanis were founded in Detroit, Michigan, in 1915. They were initially a business networking organization, but eventually changed their focus to community service.

Mission: The organization's primary mission is molding good kids into exceptional adults. They offer programs that teach leadership skills, the importance of community, and offer services like after-school tutoring programs. Annually, Kiwanis sponsors around 150,000 projects that cover a wide spectrum of services and raise over $100 million for their communities.

Members: Kiwanis is one of the few organizations that offers membership to almost all age groups—from elementary school students to adults. Combined, there are approximately 600,000 members in 8,000 clubs throughout 96 countries.

Fun Fact: The name Kiwanis is borrowed from a Native American phrase, "Nunc Kee-wanis," meaning, "We trade" or "We trade our talents."

4. Fraternal Order of Eagles

Founded: The Fraternal Order of Eagles (FOE) was started as a social club in 1898 by a small group of theater owners. As its popularity grew with traveling performance troupes, it became a full-fledged organization that provided health and funeral benefits to members. Their chapters are named after the treetop nests of eagles, called "aeries."

Mission: Today, the FOE primarily focuses its energies on battling health problems like cancer, diabetes, heart disease, and spinal cord injuries. They also have a fund dedicated to one of their most famous members, Jimmy Durante, to help children in need. Additionally, they are well known for placing thousands of plaques inscribed with the Ten Commandments throughout the United States. Perhaps most famous of these was a six-foot tall monolith presented to the State of Texas in 1961. In 2006, a lawsuit attempting to have the monument removed from public property made its way to the U.S. Supreme Court. The Court allowed the monument to stay after a narrow 5-4 decision.

Members: There are currently about 1.1 million male members in more than 1,700 local aeries across the U.S. and Canada. There are over 335,000 female members in more than 1,500 auxiliaries.

Notable Members: The FOE's membership is nothing to scoff at. The list includes seven U.S. Presidents (Teddy Roosevelt, Harding, Franklin Roosevelt, Truman, Kennedy, Carter and Reagan) entertainers, like Jimmy Durante and Bob Hope and numerous sports personalities, like Roger Maris, Stan Musial, and Arnold Palmer. First Ladies Eleanor Roosevelt and Bess Truman were members of the Ladies Auxiliary, too. And you may not know the name, but Frank Hering, an FOE member, first suggested the idea of Mother's Day and helped convince President Wilson to found the holiday in 1914.

Fun Fact: The FOE has been an outspoken and powerful force in American politics. As a personal thank you for the group's direct influence or support, the FOE has received four pens from government officials that were used to sign major bills into law. One is from Gov. Joseph Dixon of Montana who signed the first old age pension law in 1923. The second is from President Franklin Roosevelt, when he signed the Social Security Act in 1935. The third and fourth were both given by President Lyndon Johnson for supporting the 1965 Medicare amendment to the Social Security Act, as well as the 1967 "Jobs After 40" bill, which outlawed upper age limits in hiring.
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Are you a member of one of these organizations? Or do you have any inspiring stories of how a civic organization has helped you or your community? Let us know in the comments.

See Also: The Stories Behind 4 More Civic Organizations.


The central political tenet of ethnic nationalism is that ethnic groups are entitled to self-determination. [ citation needed ] The outcome of this right to self-determination may vary, from calls for self-regulated administrative bodies within an already-established society, to an autonomous entity separate from that society, to a sovereign state removed from that society. In international relations, it also leads to policies and movements for irredentism to claim a common nation based upon ethnicity. [ citation needed ]

In scholarly literature, ethnic nationalism is usually contrasted with civic nationalism. Ethnic nationalism bases membership of the nation on descent or heredity, often articulated in terms of common blood or kinship, rather than on political membership. Hence, nation-states with strong traditions of ethnic nationalism tend to define nationality or citizenship by jus sanguinis (the law of blood, descent from a person of that nationality), and countries with strong traditions of civic nationalism tend to define nationality or citizenship by jus soli (the law of soil, birth within the nation state). Ethnic nationalism is, therefore, seen as exclusive, while civic nationalism tends to be inclusive. Rather than allegiance to common civic ideals and cultural traditions, then, ethnic nationalism tends to emphasise narratives of common descent. [ citation needed ]

Some types of ethnic nationalism are firmly rooted in the idea of ethnicity as an inherited characteristic, for example black nationalism or white nationalism, often ethnic nationalism also manifests in the assimilation of minority ethnic groups into the dominant group, for example as with Italianisation. This assimilation may or may not be predicated on a belief in some common ancestry with assimilated groups (for example with Germanisation in the Second World war). An extreme version is racial nationalism. [ citation needed ]

Recent theories and empirical data suggest that people maintain dual lay beliefs about nationality, such that it can be both inherited biologically at birth and acquired culturally in life. [8]

Herodotus stated the main characteristics of Greek identity: kinship in blood, speech, religious worship, and customs. [10]

Ethnic nationalism is present in many states' immigration policies in the form of repatriation laws, including Armenia, Bulgaria, Croatia, Finland, Germany, Hungary, Ireland, Israel, Serbia, Turkey, [6] : 33 Estonia, Greece, Italy, Malaysia, Romania, and Russia, [ citation needed ] provide automatic or rapid citizenship to members of diasporas of their own native ethnic group, if desired.

In Malaysia, the Bumiputera principle recognises the "special position" of the Malays provided in the Constitution of Malaysia, in particular Article 153. However, the constitution does not use the term bumiputra it defines only "Malay" and "indigenous peoples" (Article 160(2)), [11] "natives" of Sarawak (161A(6)(a)), [12] and "natives" of Sabah (Article 161A(6) (b)). [12] Certain but not all pro-bumiputra policies exist as affirmative action for bumiputras, for NEP is racial-based and not deprivation-based. For instance, all Bumiputra, regardless of their financial standing, are entitled to a 7 percent discount on houses or property, including luxurious units, whilst a low-income non-Bumiputra receives no such financial assistance. Other preferential policies include quotas for the following: admission to government educational institutions, qualification for public scholarships, marking of universities exam papers, special bumiputras-only classes prior to university's end of term exams, for positions in government, and ownership of businesses. Most of the policies were established in the Malaysian New Economic Policy (NEP) period. Many policies focus on trying to achieve a bumiputra share of corporate equity, comprising at least 30% of the total. Ismail Abdul Rahman proposed this target after the government was unable to agree on a suitable policy goal. [ citation needed ]

In German nationality law, citizenship is open to ethnic Germans. According to the Greek nationality law, Greeks born abroad may transmit citizenship to their children from generation to generation indefinitely.

More extreme forms of ethnic nationalism have been identified as a cause of various genocides and episodes of ethnic cleansing. [13] [14] [15] In his 2005 book The Great Game of Genocide, historian Donald Bloxham argued that the Armenian genocide "represents a clear logic of ethnic nationalism when carried to its absolute extreme in multinational societies". [16]

Ethnic identity, ethnicity, and ethnic group

The terms ethnic and ethnicity have their roots in the Greek word ethnos, which describes a community of common descent. In ethnic conflict research, the terms ethnic group, communal group, ethnic community, people, and minority are mostly used interchangeably. Two elements provide the basis to identify ethnic groups: first, the accentuation of cultural traits and, second, the sense that those traits distinguish the group from the members of the society who do not share the differentiating characteristics. Anthony D. Smith, a scholar of ethnicity and nationalism studies, identified ethnic criteria that provide the origins of communal identity. Those include shared historical experiences and memories, myths of common descent, a common culture and ethnicity, and a link with a historic territory or a homeland, which the group may or may not currently inhabit. Elements of common culture include language, religion, laws, customs, institutions, dress, music, crafts, architecture, and even food. Ethnic communities show signs of solidarity and self-awareness, which are often expressed by the name the group gives itself.

Ethnic identity is formed by both tangible and intangible characteristics. Tangible characteristics, such as shared culture or common visible physical traits, are important because they contribute to the group’s feeling of identity, solidarity, and uniqueness. As a result, the group considers perceived and real threats to its tangible characteristics as risks to its identity. If the group takes steps to confront the threats, its ethnicity becomes politicized, and the group becomes a political actor by virtue of its shared identity. On the other side, ethnicity is just as much based on intangible factors—namely, on what people believe, or are made to believe, to create a sense of solidarity among members of a particular ethnic group and to exclude those who are not members.

Definitions of Nationalism

It is hard to define nationalism as several Scholars have defined nationalism in different ways. Following are some definitions of nationalism.

“Nationalism is a condition of mind, feeling or sentiment of a group of people, living in well-defined geographical area, speaking a common language, possessing a literature in that the aspirations of the nation have been expressed, attached to common customs and in some cases having a common religion. It is a product of political, economical, social and intellectual factors at a certain stage in history”. Prof Synder

“Nationalism consists of modern emotional fusion and exaggeration of two very phenomena nationality and patriotism. J.H. Hays

“Nationalism is first and foremost state of mind and an act of consciousness. that manifests an independent nation-state.” Han Kohn.

A nation includes a certain defined unit of territory and a common origin and a hope that the nation will have a great and glorious future usually in territorial expansion.” B.Shafer

Thus from the above definitions we can conclude that Nationalism is a feeling that makes the political and cultural values of the nation or a phenomena of consciousness and feeling among a group of people.

Should the word Racism have its defintions expanded to include Systemic Racism? Or should Systemic Racism stay as a term on it's own?

Sup dgg'rs. I'm not someone that is married to the idea that words should only have a single definition. I know that language changes constantly and historically always has of course. Recently though I've been seeing tons of conversation on my social media's about how it's not possible to be racist to white people because white people are not the victims of systemic racism and that whites massively benefit off of the fruits that systemic racism produces for white people. I think understandably, I'm seeing many comments about how it is possible to be racist towards white people. The disagreement is I think coming from this new "definition" of racism betraying the most common understanding of racism. Which I believe is: Racism is prejudice/ discrimination on the basis of race/skin color/ethnicity.

So in that case, why not avoid all the confusion and arguments when we can universally adopt Systemic Racism as a new term, add it to the dictionary, and put all the new Racism definitions under that term? I honestly don't see the utility in doing anything other than what I'm suggesting. When someone says Racism, I don't know if they mean racial prejudice, or if they mean the systematic oppression of POC by white people in a racial hierarchy. This ADL definition I suppose is the greatest example I have of what I mean. There's no mention of prejudice based on race in a general sense that also implies that anyone can be racist. I have no problem with a word having multiple definitions that are used in different contexts. For example the word, cock. I could mean a Rooster, I could mean penis. But I've never heard any confusion when cock is used in its different contexts. Which is the point of having a common understanding of words. Which is unlike Racism with its new definition often being used in the same context as the more commonly known "Racism is prejudice based on race" definition.

On a side not I've been also hearing that you cant be racist towards white people, but that you can be prejudiced based on race towards white people? As if there is a clear distinction?! There is none to me. I don't have many ready examples or links of the confusion I'm seeing, as I've only seen in in my social medias. But the core of my whole point is that there's no increased utility when it comes to adding "systemic racial hierarchy of POC by white people" or even replacing the old definition "racism is prejudice/ discrimination on the basis of race/skin color/ethnicity" with the new definition. If I have to ask you what you mean by a word (assuming we both have a understanding of what its definitions are), it's probably time to just adopt a new term, add it to the dictionary, ect.

Part of adding new definitions and creating words is to convey some sort of nuance or extra meaning. I don't see how the new/changed definition under Racism conveys anything useful, and even more so how adopting a new term wouldn't be more useful. If I saw some examples of how the new definition under the word Racism conveys something that a new term with that same definition would not, then I suppose I could change my mind on the utility of adding/changing the definiton of Racism. Or maybe if I saw an example of commonly used words that have multiple definitions, with those definitions being often used in similar contexts under the same word I could probably change my mind.

Maybe I'm missing some key component to the conversation since basically all my interaction with this conversation has been on social media. It's possible me and others are just being reactionary and that IRL people really have no problem changing the definition. Which if that was the case, I probably wouldn't care about the utility and Iɽ just change the internal definition I have. All in all Iɽ appreciate to see what yall say.

Using the two interchangeably is a deliberate attempt to obfuscate the non- p+p definition. I absolutely hate to use the word 'Orwellian'. Its almost always misused, with the right having beaten its usage to death.

However, I couldnt find a better example of Orwellian language games in real life outside of North Korea if I tried.

It started as two different definitions for the same thing, meaning one had to be careful about which definition one was using. Then all of a sudden, it became the definition, and fuck you for even suggesting that there ever was a previous definition you fucking piece of human filth.

It's so amazingly obvious. Literally the only time this bullshit is mentioned is when a person of colour says some horrendous shit about white people, either as a class or individually.

They then, rightly, get called out for it, only to be defended by a legion of lefty dumbfucks who dont believe this person is capable of a bad thing through virtue of their skin colour.

Then they continue to say racist shit, emboldened as they are by having no real consequences for their shitty decisions and opinions.

It's starting to turn around now, a bit. I guess in the post trump era we're a little more comfortable in call people of colour out for obvious racism, now that a literal facist isnt in charge. But still, it was maddening to watch it happen. Even worse, to watch most of the figures I looked up to at the time just sorta pretend it wasnt happening.

We should differentiate systemic racism from interpersonal racism while allowing both to still be considered under the umbrella of racism.

Prejudice based on someone's age is ageism.

Prejudice based on someone's disabilities is ableism.

Prejudice based on someone's sex is sexism.

Prior to recent, prejudice based on someone's race was racism.

It makes no sense to completely abandon our understanding of interpersonal racism when it is already consistent and its labeling follows the logic of every other type of prejudice.

The word foot can mean the appendage attached to your ankle or it can mean 12 inches. Why the fuck does a word meaning two completely different things yet having the same spelling make sense to everyone on the planet, but the distinction between two incredibly similar and related meanings (Interpersonal and Systemic Racism) being maintained under the word "racism" is difficult for those same people?

I always advocate for the Karen & Barbara Fields definitions

We strive to think rigorously about the world of experience that Americans designate by the shorthand, race.

That very shorthand is our abiding target because it confuses three different things: race, racism, and racecraft. The term race stands for the conception or the doctrine that nature produced humankind in distinct groups, each defined by inborn traits that its members share and that differentiate them from the members of other distinct groups of the same kind but of unequal rank. For example, The Races of Europe, published in 1899 to wide acclaim and lasting influence, set out to establish scientifically the distinctness of the “Teutonic,” “Alpine,” and “Mediterranean” races. After compiling tens of thousands of published measurements (of stature, shape of head and nose, coloring of skin, hair, and eyes, and more), the author, William Z. Ripley, had more than enough quantitative evidence to work with—indeed, far too much. A “taxonomic nightmare” loomed up and forced on him a certain flexibility of method: shifting criteria as needed, ignoring unruly instances, and employing ad hoc helpers like the “Index of Nigrescence” (to handle the variable coloring of persons indigenous to the British Isles)*. Fitting actual humans to any such grid inevitably calls forth the busy repertoire of strange maneuvering that is part of what we call racecraft. The nineteenth-century bio-racists’ ultimately vain search for traits with which to demarcate human groups regularly exhibited such maneuvering.† Race is the principal unit and core concept of racism.

Racism refers to the theory and the practice of applying a social, civic, or legal double standard based on ancestry, and to the ideology surrounding such a double standard. That may be what the economist Glenn Loury intends when he identifies “a withholding of the presumption of equal humanity.” Racism is not an emotion or state of mind, such as intolerance, bigotry, hatred, or malevolence. If it were that, it would easily be overwhelmed, because most people mean well, most of the time, and in any case are usually busy pursuing other purposes. Racism is first and foremost a social practice, which means that it is an action and a rationale for action, or both at once. Racism always takes for granted the objective reality of race, as just defined, so it is important to register their distinctness. The shorthand transforms racism, something an aggressor does, into race, something the target is, in a sleight of hand that is easy to miss. Consider the statement “black Southerners were segregated because of their skin color”—a perfectly natural sentence to the ears of most Americans, who tend to overlook its weird causality. But in that sentence, segregation disappears as the doing of segregationists, and then, in a puff of smoke—puff—reappears as a trait of only one part of the segregated whole. In similar fashion, enslavers disappear only to reappear, disguised, in stories that append physical traits defined as slave-like to those enslaved.‡

Jefferson became so entangled in the reversals as to declare that the very people white Americans had lived with for over 160 years as slaves would be, after emancipation, too different for white people to live with any longer. He proposed that slaves be freed and promptly deported, their lost labor to be supplied through the importation of white laborers. His catalogue of differences went from skin color (they do not blush) and internal organs (“They secrete less by the kidnies”), to intellect (“In imagination, they are dull, tasteless, and anomalous”) and even emotion (“Their griefs are transient,” he asserted without irony). Even so, as a man of science, Jefferson qualified: “I advance it therefore as a suspicion only that the blacks, whether originally a distinct race, or made distinct by time and circumstances, are inferior to the whites in the endowments both of body and mind.” He thus recognized the oddity of his position—even if intermittently, through the off- and-on blinking of racecraft.§

Distinct from race and racism, racecraft does not refer to groups or to ideas about groups’ traits, however odd both may appear in close-up. It refers instead to mental terrain and to pervasive belief. Like physical terrain, racecraft exists objectively it has topographical features that Americans regularly navigate, and we cannot readily stop traversing it. Unlike physical terrain, racecraft originates not in nature but in human action and imagination it can exist in no other way.¶ The action and imagining are collective yet individual, day-to-day yet historical, and consequential even though nested in mundane routine. The action and imagining emerge as part of moment-to-moment practicality, that is, thinking about and executing every purpose under the sun. Do not look for racecraft, therefore, only where it might be said to “belong.” Finally, racecraft is not a euphemistic substitute for racism. It is a kind of fingerprint evidence that racism has been on the scene.

The main goal of civic education can be considered as the formation of civil qualities on the basis of new knowledge, skills and values ​​that help individuals to solve emerging problems, adapt to changing socio-economic and political conditions, represent and protect their rights and interests, respecting the interests and rights of others.

What is non formal education? Methods, definition, types?

Source: UGC

What are the components of civic education?

The main components of civic education are:

  1. Human rights education.
  2. Teaching a culture of peace.
  3. Education of tolerance.
  4. Development of intersectoral social partnerships.
  5. Management of self-governing associations of citizens.

The major groups in the society that civic education is largely targeted at and focused on can be identified as:

  • schoolchildren and students
  • teachers
  • military and security forces
  • state and municipal employees
  • NGO activists
  • prisoners and other risk groups
  • pensioners and older people.

APA Divisions with a Role in Civic Engagement

Civic engagement is at the forefront of many APA initiatives. Psychologists and psychology educators are leading efforts to address serious societal concerns. Their work can be found in many settings addressing a broad cross section of society. Below are some examples of the work conducted through APA, its members and the people who are served.

Division 9 — Society for the Psychological Study of Social Issues (SPSSI) welcomes psychologists and allied social scientists who share a common concern with research on psychological aspects of important social issues and social subjects to bring theory and practice into focus on human problems of the group, the community, and the nation, and the increasingly important problems that have no national boundaries. SPSSI has been represented as a Non-Governmental Organization (NGO) at the United Nations since 1987 and has held consultative status with the UN's Economic and Social Council since 1991.

Division 16 — School Psychology is composed of scientific-practitioner psychologists whose major professional interests lie with children, families, and the schooling process. The Division represents the interests of psychologists engaged in the delivery of comprehensive psychological services to children, adolescents, and families in schools and other applied settings. The Division is dedicated to facilitating the professional practice of school psychology and actively advocates in domains, such as education and health care reform, which have significant implications for the practice of psychology with children.

Division 17 — Counseling Psychology brings together psychologists, students and professional affiliates who are dedicated to promoting education and training, scientific investigation, practice, and diversity and public interest in professional psychology. The division is involved with response to disaster and trauma.

Division 18 — Psychologists in Public Service responds to the needs of the public in areas such as psychological practice, research, training, and policy formation. The Division is comprised of five sections representing a variety of settings: Community and State Hospital Psychologists, Criminal Justice, Police and Public Safety, Program Evaluation, and Veterans Affairs (VA) Psychologists. Federal advocacy is taking place on a number of fronts of interest to public affairs.

Division 27 — Society for Community Research and Action: Division of Community Psychology encourages the development of theory, research, and practice relevant to the reciprocal relationships between individuals and the social system which constitute the community context.

Division 35 — Society for the Psychology of Women provides an organizational base for all feminists, women and men of all national origins, who are interested in teaching, research, or practice in the psychology of women. The division recognizes a diversity of women's experiences which result from a variety of factors, including ethnicity, culture, language, socioeconomic status, age and sexual orientation.

Division 37 — Child, Youth, and Family Services is concerned with professional and scientific issues relative to services and service structures for children and youth. The Division seeks to advance research, education, training, and practice and relate psychological knowledge to other fields such as anthropology, law and pediatrics in such areas as employment, education, recreation and family planning. The division is interested in the areas of child maltreatment.

Division 45 — Society for the Psychological Study of Culture, Ethnicity and Race encourages research on ethnic minority issues and the application of psychological knowledge to ethnic minority issues. The Division promotes public welfare through research and encourages professional relationships among psychologists who share these concerns and interests. Training tapes are available which discuss working with members of diverse communities.

Division 48 — Society for the Study of Peace, Conflict & Violence: Peace Psychology Division works to promote peace in the world at large and within nations, communities, and families. It encourages psychological and multidisciplinary research, education and training on issues concerning peace, nonviolent resolution, reconciliation and the causes, consequences and prevention of violence and destructive conflict. The division has a statement on recent terrorist events.

Division 51 — The Society for the Psychological Study of Men and Masculinities advances knowledge in the new psychology of men through research, education, training, public policy and improved clinical services for men. SPSMM provides a forum for members to discuss the critical issues facing men of all races, classes, ethnicities, sexual orientations and nationalities. Members have conducted research in the area of spousal abuse.

Division 53 — Society of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology represents psychologists who are active in teaching, research, clinical services, administration and advocacy in clinical child psychology to the APA and the public. The division provides valuable information concerning talking with children about disasters and trauma.

Division 55 — American Society for the Advancement of Pharmacotherapy (ASAP), Division 55, was created to enhance psychological treatments combined with psychopharmacological medications. It promotes the public interest by working for the establishment of high quality statutory and regulatory standards for psychological care. The Division encourages the collaborative practice of psychological and pharmacological treatments with other health professions. The division has developed a statement on the effectiveness of psychologists prescribing medications.

Watch the video: Η Ελληνική Ιδιαιτερότητα. Ο Θεοφάνης Τάσης πάνω στον Κορνήλιο Καστοριάδη (August 2022).