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Warrior of Grezan

Warrior of Grezan


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Nimes

Nimes is a city in France situated in the Region Languedoc-Roussillon, near Montpellier and Arles. Roman and Hispanic and with contributions from the Camargue and the Cévennes, the Languedoc and Provence, Nîmes is a city of all accents! It has been fashioned for over 2000 years by southern sunshine, wind and various influences. Set at the crossroads of history and human relations' (Christian Liger), it has lived the history of Europe intensely. And although it has many influences and paradoxes, its personality is unique. Welcome. Secretive Nîmes will open its heart to you.


The Origins of Nimes

Prehistory

The site on which the built-up area of Nimes has become established in the course of centuries is part of the edge of the alluvial plain of the Vistrenque River which buts up against low hills: to the North-East, the Mr. Duplan to the South-West, Montaury to the West, Mt. Cavalier and the knoll of Canteduc.

From 4000 to 2000 BC

The site know as Serre Paradis belongs to the New Stone Age (Neolithic). This deposit reveals the presence of semi-nomadic cultivators in the period 4000 to 3500 BC on the future emplacement of Nimes. The population of the site increased during the thousand-year period of the Bronze Age. The menhir of Courbessac (or La Poudriere) stands in a field, near the airstrip. This limestone monolith of over 2 metres in height dates to about 2500 BC, and must be considered as the oldest monument of Nimes.

From 1800 to 1 BC

The Bronze Age has left us traces of a village of huts and branches.

From 600 BC to 49 BC

The Warrior of Grezan is considered to be the most ancient indigenous sculpture in southern Gaule. The hill named Mt. Cavalier was the site of the early oppidum: city which gave birth to the city. In the 3rd to 2nd century BC a surrounding wall was built, closed at the summit by a dry-stone tower, which was later incorporated into the masonry of The Tor Magne. The Wars of Gaule and the fall of Marseilles (49 BC) allowed Niems to regain its autonomy under Rome.

The Gallo-Roman Period

It was about 50 BC that Nimes became a Roman colony, as witness the earliest coins which bear the abbreviation NEM. COL, "Colony of Nemausus". Some years later a sanctuary and other constructions connected with the fountain were raised on the site. Nimes was already under Roman influence, though it was Augustus who made the city the capital of Narbonne province, and gave it all its glory.

Augustus gave the town a ring of ramparts six kilometres long, reinforced by fourteen towers, with gates of which two remain today, the Porte Auguste and the Porte de France. He had the Forum built and perhaps also the aqueduct. Nothing remains of certain monuments, the existence of which is known from inscriptions or architectural fragments found in the course of excavations. It is know that the town had civil basilica, a curia, a gymnasium and perhaps a circus. The amphitheatre dates from the end of the 2nd century AD. The family of Roman Emperor Antoninus Pius was originated in Nemausus.

This prosperity was to stay with the town until the end of the 3rd century. Already there was risk of invasion, and the decadence of Rome allowed the barbarian hordes to be even more audacious. Visigoths, Burgunds, and Ostrogoths came one after the other to pillage the riches of the Empire.

From the 4th to 5th century

After the Gallo-Roman period, in the days of invasion and decadence, the Christian Church, already established in Gaule since the 1st century AD, appeared be the last refuge open to civilisation. Remarkably organised and directed by men of great worth, it took bit by bit a preponderant place in the march of time. After the barbarian invasions the population had to face incursions by Moors from Spain (AD 710). This occupation, strange to say, was beneficial for the Nimes region. It came to an end in 754 under Pepin the Short. The town, ruined by so many troubles and invasions was now only a shadow of the opulent Gallo-Roman city. The local powers installed themselves in the amphitheatre. Carolingian rule brought relative peace with it, but feudal times in the 12th century brought local troubles which lasted until the days of St.Louis. During this period Nimes was jointly administered by a lay power resident in the old amphitheatre, where lived the Viguier and the Knights of the Arena, and the religious power based in the Bishop's place complex, around the cathedral, its chapter and the Bishop's house meanwhile the city was represented by four Consuls who sat in the Maison Carree. Despite incessant feudal squabbling, Nimes saw a certain progress both in commerce and industry as well as in stockbreeding and associated activities. After the last effort by Raymond VII of Toulouse, St. Louis managed to base Royal power in the region which became Languedoc. Nimes thus entered finally into the hands of the King of France.

The Time of Invasions

During the 14th and 15th centuries the Rhone Valley underwent an uninterrupted series of invasions which ruined the economy and brought about famine. Customs were forgotten, there were religious troubles and epidemics, all of which affected the city. Nimes, which was one of the Protestant strongholds, felt the full force of repression and fratricidal confrontments which continued until the middle of the 17th century, adding to the misery of periodic outbreaks of plague.

From the 17th Century to the Revolution

In the middle of the 17th century Nimes experienced a period of prosperity. Population growth caused the town to expand, and slum housing to be replaced. Also to this period dates the reconstruction of Notre-Dame-Saint-Castor, the Bishop's palace and numerous mansions (Hotels). This 'renaissance' strengthened the manufacturing and industrial vocation of the city, the population rising from 21000 to 50000 inhabitants. Also in this period the Fountain gardens were laid out, the areas surrounding the Maison Carree and the Amphitheatre were cleared, whilst the entire population benefited from the atmosphere of prosperity.

From the Revolution to the Present Day

Following the European economic crisis which hit Nimes with full force, the Revolutionary period awoke slumbering demons of political and religious antagonism. The White Terror added to natural calamities and economic recession, produced murder, pillage and arson until 1815. Order was however restored in the course of the 19th century, and Nimes became the metropolis of Bas-Languedoc, diversifying its industry towards new kinds of activity. At the same time the surrounding countryside adapted to market needs and shared in the general increase of wealth. Nimes is already prepared to face the oncoming century and, having withstood the burden of two world wars, on the eve of the third millennium, is perhaps on the threshold of a new Golden Age.


Zebuxoruk

In the Plane of Time B: Spawns (or is "freed") upon the death of Quarm.

In The Void (A-G): Zebuxoruk is the lone occupant of The Void and has quite a story to tell. His dialogue can be found here, as can our Seeds of Destruction Progression information.

In The Void (H) (static): Part of the Call of the Forsaken expansion, Zebuxoruk is again the lone occupant of The Void. (For all things related to Call of the Forsaken, check out this overview of the expansion.)

In The Void (H) (instanced): Part of the Call of the Forsaken event "The Journey Home" (see this quest entry for details about the group version and this quest entry for details about the raid version).

NPC Added: 2008-11-08 04:20:18
NPC Last Updated: 2020-07-24 04:59:22
Items Available (80):
Item Price Currency Faction/TS Requirements Seasonal
Archaic Chain Boots 815Chronobines
Archaic Chain Coat 925Chronobines
Archaic Chain Coif 835Chronobines
Archaic Chain Gauntlets [void] 785Chronobines
Archaic Chain Leggings 875Chronobines
Archaic Chain Sleeves 855Chronobines
Archaic Chain Wristguard 765Chronobines
Archaic Cloth Cap 835Chronobines
Archaic Cloth Gloves 785Chronobines
Archaic Cloth Pants [no drop] 875Chronobines
Archaic Cloth Robe 925Chronobines
Archaic Cloth Sandals 815Chronobines
Archaic Cloth Sleeves 855Chronobines
Archaic Cloth Wristband 765Chronobines
Archaic Leather Armwraps 855Chronobines
Archaic Leather Boots 815Chronobines
Archaic Leather Cowl 835Chronobines
Archaic Leather Gloves 785Chronobines
Archaic Leather Leggings 875Chronobines
Archaic Leather Tunic [void] 925Chronobines
Archaic Leather Wristguard 765Chronobines
Archaic Plate Boots 815Chronobines
Archaic Plate Bracer 765Chronobines
Archaic Plate Breastplate 925Chronobines
Archaic Plate Gauntlets 785Chronobines
Archaic Plate Greaves 875Chronobines
Archaic Plate Helm 835Chronobines
Archaic Plate Vambraces 855Chronobines
Bard's Polymorphic Cocoon 10Chronobines
Beastlord's Polymorphic Cocoon 10Chronobines
Berserker's Polymorphic Cocoon 10Chronobines
Cleric's Polymorphic Cocoon 10Chronobines
Druid's Polymorphic Cocoon 10Chronobines
Enchanter's Polymorphic Cocoon 10Chronobines
Faintly Pulsating Chronal Shear 225Chronobines
Glowing Dyadic Quartz 105Chronobines
Hushed Mutating Tinea 115Chronobines
Magician's Polymorphic Cocoon 10Chronobines
Minor Corrupted Quartz 45Chronobines
Minor Corrupted Quartzite 45Chronobines
Minor Dyadic Quartz 45Chronobines
Minor Dyadic Quartzite 45Chronobines
Monk's Polymorphic Cocoon 10Chronobines
Necromancer's Polymorphic Cocoon 10Chronobines
Paladin's Polymorphic Cocoon 10Chronobines
Quiet Mutating Tinea 110Chronobines
Ranger's Polymorphic Cocoon 10Chronobines
Rogue's Polymorphic Cocoon 10Chronobines
Shadow Polymorphic Cocoon 10Chronobines
Shaman's Polymorphic Cocoon 10Chronobines
Silenced Mutating Tinea 75Chronobines
Silenced Tinea Deviation Chamber 15Chronobines
Spell: Befuddler's Aura Rk. III 330Chronobines
Spell: Bonestitch Effigy Rk. III 330Chronobines
Spell: Charge for Honor Rk. III 330Chronobines
Spell: Finsternacht Orb 155Chronobines
Spell: Finsternacht Orb Rk. III 310Chronobines
Spell: Frondspur 155Chronobines
Spell: Frondspur Rk. III 310Chronobines
Spell: Grezan's Drowse Rk. III 300Chronobines
Spell: Listlessness Rk. III 330Chronobines
Spell: Mindfreeze Rk. III 330Chronobines
Spell: Mindshear Horror 155Chronobines
Spell: Runic Shimmer Aura Rk. III 330Chronobines
Spell: Slitheren Venom Rk. III 390Chronobines
Spell: Soul Reaper's Pyre Rk. III 185Chronobines
Spell: Summer's Mist Rk. III 370Chronobines
Spell: Talisman of the Lynx 155Chronobines
Spell: Twelfth Night Rk. III 330Chronobines
Spell: Twincast Rk. III 390Chronobines
Spell: Vow of Valiance 155Chronobines
Spell: Wildmagic Blast 155Chronobines
Spell: Winter's Flare Rk. III 350Chronobines
Spell: Withering Decay Rk. III 350Chronobines
Tome of Calanin's Synergy 155Chronobines
Tome of Calanin's Synergy Rk. III 310Chronobines
Tome of Overpowering Frenzy Rk. III 310Chronobines
Warrior's Polymorphic Cocoon 10Chronobines
Whispering Mutating Tinea 125Chronobines
Wizard's Polymorphic Cocoon 10Chronobines

Looks like a display error. I've let our developers know, thanks.

Looks like a display error. I've let our developers know, thanks.

This should be fixed. Let us know if you see any further discrepancies.

Any ONE theme completed = Void B
Any TWO themes completed = Void C
etc.

Your range of choice in mercs depends on the hardest theme you've completed Void just counts how many themes you've done.

I believe you can skip a progression for each void, but you have to complete the theme above the void that you would receive.

Ocean (incomplete) + Kithicor (complete) = Void B
Ocean (incomplete) + Kithicor (complete) + FoS (complete) = Void C

I'm not sure if FoS would give Void B if you completed that only.

After getting Void B access also sells:
Archaic Chain Coat - 925
Archaic Cloth Pants - 875
Archaic Chain Leggings - 875
Archaic Leather Leggings - 875
Archaic Plate Greaves - 875
Archaic Chain Sleeves - 855
Archaic Cloth Sleeves - 855
Archaic Leather Armwraps - 855
Archaic Plate Vambraces - 855
Archaic Leather Cowl - 835
Archaic Cloth Cap - 835
Archaic Chain Coif - 835
Archaic Plate Helm - 835
Archaic Leather Boots - 815
Archaic Chain Boots - 815
Archaic Cloth Sandals - 815
Archaic Plate Boots - 815
Archaic Chain Gauntlets - 785
Archaic Leather Gloves - 785
Archaic Cloth Gloves - 785
Archaic Plate Guantlets - 785
Archaic Cloth Wristband - 765
Archaic Leather Wristguard - 765
Archaic Plate Bracer - 765

Spell: Frondspur - 155
Spell: Vow of Valiance - 155
Spell: Talisman of the Lynx - 155
Spell: Mindshear Horror - 155
Spell: Finsternacht Orb - 155

Whispering Mutating Tinea - 125
Hushed Mutating Tinea - 110
Minor Corrupted Quartzite - 45

After getting Void B access also sells:
Archaic Chain Coat - 925
Archaic Cloth Pants - 875
Archaic Chain Leggings - 875
Archaic Leather Leggings - 875
Archaic Plate Greaves - 875
Archaic Chain Sleeves - 855
Archaic Cloth Sleeves - 855
Archaic Leather Armwraps - 855
Archaic Plate Vambraces - 855
Archaic Leather Cowl - 835
Archaic Cloth Cap - 835
Archaic Chain Coif - 835
Archaic Plate Helm - 835
Archaic Leather Boots - 815
Archaic Chain Boots - 815
Archaic Cloth Sandals - 815
Archaic Plate Boots - 815
Archaic Chain Gauntlets - 785
Archaic Leather Gloves - 785
Archaic Cloth Gloves - 785
Archaic Plate Guantlets - 785
Archaic Cloth Wristband - 765
Archaic Leather Wristguard - 765
Archaic Plate Bracer - 765

Spell: Frondspur - 155
Spell: Vow of Valiance - 155
Spell: Talisman of the Lynx - 155
Spell: Mindshear Horror - 155
Spell: Finsternacht Orb - 155

Whispering Mutating Tinea - 125
Hushed Mutating Tinea - 110
Minor Corrupted Quartzite - 45


Contents

The site on which the built-up area of Nîmes has become established in the course of centuries is part of the edge of the alluvial plain of the Vistrenque River which butts up against low hills: to the northeast, Mont Duplan to the southwest, Montaury to the west, Mt. Cavalier and the knoll of Canteduc.

Its name appears in inscriptions in Gaulish as dede matrebo Namausikabo = "he has given to the mothers of Nîmes" and "toutios Namausatis" = "citizen of Nîmes". [9]

Nemausus was the god of the local Volcae Arecomici tribe.

4000–2000 BC Edit

The Neolithic site of Serre Paradis reveals the presence of semi-nomadic cultivators in the period 4000 to 3500 BC on the site of Nîmes. [ citation needed ]

The menhir of Courbessac (or La Poudrière) stands in a field, near the airstrip. This limestone monolith of over two metres in height dates to about 2500 BC, and is considered the oldest monument of Nîmes.

1800–600 BC Edit

The Bronze Age has left traces of villages that were made out of huts and branches. [ citation needed ] The population of the site increased during the Bronze Age.

600–121 BC Edit

The hill of Mt. Cavalier was the site of the early oppidum which gave birth to the city. During the third and 2nd centuries BC a surrounding wall was built with a dry-stone tower at the summit which was later incorporated into the Tour Magne. The Volcae Arecomici people settled around the spring at the foot of Mount Cavalier and built a sanctuary to Nemausus there.

The Warrior of Grezan is considered to be the most ancient indigenous sculpture in southern Gaul. [ citation needed ]

In 123 BC the Roman general Quintus Fabius Maximus campaigned against Gallic tribes in the area and defeated the Allobroges and the Arverni, while the Volcae offered no resistance. The Roman province Gallia Transalpina was established in 121 BC [10] and from 118 BC the Via Domitia was built through the later site of the city.

Roman period Edit

The city arose on the important Via Domitia which connected Italy with Hispania.

Nîmes became a Roman colony as Colonia Nemausus sometime before 28 BC, as witnessed by the earliest coins, which bear the abbreviation NEM. COL, "Colony of Nemausus". [11] Veterans of Julius Caesar's legions in his Nile campaigns were given plots of land to cultivate on the plain of Nîmes. [12]

Augustus started a major building program in the city, as elsewhere in the empire. He also gave the town a ring of ramparts 6 km (3.7 miles) long, reinforced by 14 towers two gates remain today: the Porta Augusta and the Porte de France.

The Maison Carrée dating from the late 1st c. BC is one of the best-preserved temples to be found anywhere in the former Roman Empire, and appears to be almost totally intact.

The great Nimes Aqueduct, many of whose remains can be seen today outside of the city, was built to bring water from the hills to the north. Where it crossed the River Gard between Uzès and Remoulins, the spectacular Pont du Gard was built. This is 20 km (12 mi) north east of the city.

The museum contains many fine objects including mosaic floors, frescoes and sculpture from rich houses and buildings found in excavations in and near the city. It is known that the town had a civil basilica, a curia, a gymnasium and perhaps a circus. The amphitheatre is very well preserved, dates from the end of the 2nd century and was one of the largest amphitheatres in the Empire. The so-called Temple of Diana dating from Augustus and rebuilt in the 2nd century was not a temple but was centred on a nymphaeum located within the Fontaine Sanctuary dedicated to Augustus and may have been a library.

The city was the birthplace of the family of emperor Antoninus Pius (138-161).

Emperor Constantine (306-337) endowed the city with baths.

It became the seat of the Diocesan Vicar, [ citation needed ] the chief administrative officer of southern Gaul.

The town was prosperous until the end of the 3rd century when successive barbarian invasions slowed its development. During the 4th and 5th centuries, the nearby town of Arles enjoyed more prosperity. In the early 5th century the Praetorian Prefecture was moved from Trier in northeast Gaul to Arles. [ citation needed ]

The Visigoths captured the city in 472.

Obverse: Back to back head of Agrippa left wearing rostral crown, and laureate head of Augustus right on either side, inscription. Above and below, inscription. Border of dots. Lettering: "IMP P P DIVI F" ("IMPerator DIVI Filius Pater Patriæ", Emperor, Son of the Divine Father of the Nation).

Reverse: Crocodile to right, chained by neck to a palm-tree with tip bending left, two short palms on either side of trunk on right, inscription on left, inscription surmounted by a crown with two long tails to right. Border of dots. Lettering: "COL NEM" ("Colonia Nemausus", Colony of Nemausus)

Finds from Roman Nimes in the Musée de la Romanité Edit

Mosaic of Europa and Zeus

4th–13th centuries Edit

After the Roman period the Christian Church, already established in Gaul since the 1st century AD, [ citation needed ] appeared to be the last refuge of classical civilisation, as it was organised and directed by a series of Gallo-Roman aristocrats. [ citation needed ] When the Visigoths were accepted into the Roman Empire, Nîmes was included in their territory in 472, even after the Frankish victory at the Battle of Vouillé (507). The urban landscape went through transformation with the Goths, but much of the heritage of the Roman era remained largely intact.

By 725, the Muslim Umayyads had conquered the whole Visigothic territory of Septimania including Nîmes. In 736–737, Charles Martel and his brother led an expedition to Septimania and Provence, and largely destroyed the city (in the hands of Umayyads allied with the local Gallo-Roman and Gothic nobility), including the amphitheatre, thereafter heading back north. The Muslim government came to an end in 752, when Pepin the Short captured the city. In 754, an uprising took place against the Carolingian king, but was put down, and count Radulf, a Frank, appointed as master of the city. After the events connected with the war, Nîmes was now only a shadow of the opulent Roman city it had once been. The local authorities installed themselves in the remains of the amphitheatre. Islamic burials have been found in Nîmes. [13] [14] [15] [16]

Carolingian rule brought relative peace, but feudal times in the 12th century brought local troubles, which lasted until the days of St. Louis. During that period Nîmes was jointly administered by a lay power resident in the old amphitheatre, where lived the Viguier and the Knights of the Arena, and the religious power based in the Bishop's palace complex, around the cathedral, its chapter and the Bishop's house meanwhile the city was represented by four Consuls, who sat in the Maison Carrée.

Despite incessant feudal squabbling, Nîmes saw some progress both in commerce and industry as well as in stock-breeding and associated activities.

After the last effort by Raymond VII of Toulouse, St. Louis managed to establish royal power in the region which became Languedoc. Nîmes thus finally came into the hands of the King of France.

Period of invasions Edit

During the 14th and 15th centuries the Rhone Valley underwent an uninterrupted series of invasions which ruined the economy and caused famine. Customs were forgotten, religious troubles developed (see French Wars of Religion) and epidemics, all of which affected the city. Nîmes, which was one of the Protestant strongholds, felt the full force of repression and fratricidal confrontations (including the Michelade massacre) which continued until the middle of the 17th century, adding to the misery of periodic outbreaks of plague.

17th century to the French Revolution Edit

In the middle of the 17th century Nîmes experienced a period of prosperity. Population growth caused the town to expand, and slum housing to be replaced. To this period also belong the reconstruction of Notre-Dame-Saint-Castor, the Bishop's palace and numerous mansions (hôtels). This renaissance strengthened the manufacturing and industrial potential of the city, the population rising from 21,000 to 50,000 inhabitants.

In this same period the Fountain gardens, the Quais de la Fontaine, were laid out, the areas surrounding the Maison Carrée and the Amphitheatre were cleared of encroachments, whilst the entire population benefited from the atmosphere of prosperity.

From the French Revolution to the present Edit

Following a European economic crisis that hit Nîmes with full force, the Revolutionary period awoke the slumbering demons of political and religious antagonism. The White Terror added to natural calamities and economic recession, produced murder, pillage and arson until 1815. Order was however restored in the course of the century, and Nîmes became the metropolis of Bas-Languedoc, diversifying its industry into new kinds of activity. At the same time the surrounding countryside adapted to market needs and shared in the general increase of wealth.

During the Second World War, the Maquis resistance fighters Jean Robert and Vinicio Faïta were executed at Nîmes on 22 April 1943. The Nîmes marshalling yards were bombed by American bombers in 1944.

The 2º Régiment Étranger d'Infanterie (2ºREI), the main motorised infantry regiment of the French Foreign Legion, has been garrisoned in Nîmes since November 1983. [17]

Climate Edit

Nîmes is one of the warmest cities in France. The city has a Mediterranean climate (Köppen: Csa), being wetter than a typical Mediterranean climate, especially for its moderately rainy summers. It's slightly inland, southerly location results in hot air over the city during summer months, temperatures above 34 °C are common in July and August, whereas winters are cool but not cold. Night temps under 0 °C are common from December to February, while snowfall occurs every year.


Celtic Warrior Culture

So I'm trying to understand more about the Celts. I'm currently watching "In Search of History-The Celts" and it's got me confused. I know the Celts didn't write about their society so what we know is based of the writings of the Roman's and Greeks. This documentary mentions that Celts were fierce warriors and often went into battle naked. From everything I've read its said that that's Roman propaganda. Since its speculated that the Celts invented chain mail armor. I also can understand that chain mail must've been expensive for the common man and leather armor wasn't practical in Celtic society because they were cattle herders. So do we know definitively what the Celtic warrior culture was like? Should I take this documentary as a grain of salt or is it truly the best understanding we have of this ancient people?

We don't know definitively what Celtic culture was like because there was no "definitive" Celtic culture. At best, the groups we label "Celtic" shared linguistic ties and certain loose cultural features. We can't really generalize further than that because these groups were multi-ethnic, adapted certain features from other cultures, and innovated themselves over time. The very lifestyle of these peoples varied from Poland to Ireland, and from pre-history to the early Medieval period. The term Celt was only ever maybe used by a few tribes, and terms like Κελτοί (Keltoi) and Galli were applied to these tribes by Greeks and Romans, respectively. While coalitions of these tribes may have eventually begun to unify under common concepts of identity or at least familiarity by the Classical period, this certainly did not encompass the broad range of peoples labelled "Celtic" today. It's commonly noted that inhabitants of Britain and Ireland weren't considered Celts like the people of Continental Europe were in Antiquity, it was only from the 15th Century AD onwards that antiquarians started calling ancient British and Irish tribes Celtic.

I can still answer your question about ancient Celtic armaments, but I wanted to break that common misconception first. Firstly, it is true that the Celts probably never went into battle naked and that the Romans played up the idea of the savage warrior people. The concept of a barbarous horde of warriors who were madly courageous in victory, and sickeningly cowardly in defeat, was great propaganda. It not only explained why the Romans were so valiant for conquering them, it even helps illustrate why the Celts "deserved" to be conquered.

Most depictions of Celtic warriors come from the Hellenistic period or the following Roman period. There just aren't that many surviving examples of Celtic art compared to Greek or Roman finds. The Greeks and Romans also generally didn't even care much about the existence of the Celts until around the 4th and 3rd Centuries BC, when massive coalitions of Celtic tribes migrated southeast and attempted (mostly unsuccessfully) to settle in parts of southeastern Europe and western Asia.

Many depictions of Celts show them wearing mail armour and carrying oval shields which were long enough to protect the greater part of the body. In addition to chainmail, Celts wore woven breeches, tunics, and cloaks which were usually made with wool or animal hair. Surviving scraps of Celtic textiles reveal that these were brightly dyed with plant dyes, and patterns such as plaid and tweed were quite popular. The torc, an iconic gold necklace, is also an identifying feature of high status Celts, and ornate brooches were used to fasten clothing.

The 1st Century BC Roman author Varro claimed that the Celts invented mail armour, and areas with Celtic presences like northern Italy are likely where Romans were first introduced to mail. Only a few Celtic mail shirts survive, but these usually fall below the waist and have broad shoulder straps. Leather cuirasses actually are attested to by artistic evidence, as are cloth tunics. Leather armour may not have been common, but it certainly existed.

This 2nd Century AD terracotta statue depicts an archetypal Celtic warrior. He has long hair, a drooping moustache, a long oval shield, and appears to be wearing some kind of (possibly chainmail) tunic. Images of Celts in breastplates also exist however. One of the best pre-Roman depictions of a Gallic (Celtic) warrior is Le Guerrier de Grezan. As you can see from the image I linked on Flickr, he is wearing a breastplate, a torc necklace, a sun pendant, and a kind of hood or helmet.

It's not exactly what the "common man" could have afforded. When historians speak of Celtic warriors they usually focus on a member of a (possibly) warrior-aristocracy. These warriors are known from the richness of their burials, and the testimony of Greek/Roman authors. They could afford to invest in expensive equipment, since warfare and raids would have been the way that they maintained their status and even moved up in status. Although it's easy to forget that these burials are exceptional and these accounts are embellished, it is necessary to remember that the warriors described are uncommon.

La Tene burials of warriors often include swords, spears, knives, drinking horns, dishes, and brooches. More important burials can include chariots or horses. According to Romans, the Celts used these chariots to get into the fray and intimidate their enemies before jumping off and fighting on foot. Horses were status symbols, and they were also integral to Celtic combat. According to Pausanias, there was a custom where chieftains would ride into combat with three horses, accompanied by two grooms. If the chieftain's horse died, one of the grooms would give him another, and if he died, one of the grooms mounted and fought in his place. There are some parallels to the use of chariots and horses in other areas of Europe like Iron Age Greece, but it might be wise not to dive too far into reconstructive comparisons.

Swords, rather than spears, are more commonly represented but spears were also very common weapons. Studies of weapons found in Gaul indicate that there was a consistent style of arms in production between the 5th and 1st Century BC. This means that from the Late Iron Age to the Roman period, Celts were making and using arms that were consistent in approximate shape and size. Celtic swords were usually longer and more well accustomed to cutting than stabbing, making them different from the swords common to Greece or southern Italy. Spears with shafts of ash are common, and an impressive degree of variation and innovation in spearhead design is attested to. Changes in design varied between regions, with some being quite localized. For example, British shields and helmets are often more ornate than those of the Continent.

Swords survive better than spears or shields because iron does not decompose as fast as wood or leather (duh) but this means that we can't actually say how common certain weapons were relative to others based solely on archaeological deposits of weapons. After all, spears and shields were essential based on literary and artistic evidence, and it only makes sense that these arms would have been useful in the kind of warfare Celts were accustomed to.

A kind of hierarchy of warriors appears on the Gundestrup Cauldron from Jutland, Denmark.A man with a boar-crested helmet and a sword follows the spearmen, and behind him are three carnyx players. At the far left is an oversized god dipping a man in a cauldron of rebirth. In the top register, a bunch of warriors or chieftains on horseback ride away from the god. It seems like this scene portrays warriors moving up in status in the afterlife, they are reborn and apparently promoted at the same time.

All of the men appear to be wearing tunics and short breeches, but some differences in equipment exist. The mounted warriors and the man leading the carnyx players appear to have better or more ornate helmets for example, and horses would have meant they were of higher status. Helmets are well attested in La Tene and Halstatt burials, and were certainly used but they are not as common as one might assume. This ties into Greek and Roman claims that many Celtic peoples avoided the use of helmets for cultural reasons. Bronze helmets like this Negova Type or the later Meyrick Helmet exist, and many are more ornate like the clearly ceremonial Agris Helmt. The use of materials like gold and coral in addition to iron and bronze makes it clear that many of these ceremonial helmets were status symbols, and their often impractical designs indicate that they may have been crafted with an eye towards visibility (perhaps during parades) as opposed to protection of the head in combat. Later La Tene helmets actually developed to be less ornate and more practical based on studies of helmets found in La Tene burials, although Classical writers preferred to talk about the more visually striking helmets.


Contents

Climate data for Nîmes (1981–2010 averages)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 21.5
(70.7)
23.8
(74.8)
27.3
(81.1)
30.7
(87.3)
34.7
(94.5)
39.1
(102.4)
38.8
(101.8)
41.6
(106.9)
35.4
(95.7)
31.9
(89.4)
26.1
(79)
20.6
(69.1)
41.6
(106.9)
Average high °C (°F) 11.0
(51.8)
12.4
(54.3)
16.0
(60.8)
18.6
(65.5)
23.0
(73.4)
27.5
(81.5)
31.0
(87.8)
30.5
(86.9)
25.7
(78.3)
20.4
(68.7)
14.5
(58.1)
11.3
(52.3)
20.2
(68.4)
Average low °C (°F) 2.7
(36.9)
3.2
(37.8)
5.8
(42.4)
8.3
(46.9)
12.1
(53.8)
15.8
(60.4)
18.7
(65.7)
18.4
(65.1)
14.9
(58.8)
11.5
(52.7)
6.5
(43.7)
3.6
(38.5)
10.2
(50.4)
Record low °C (°F) −12.2
(10)
−14.0
(6.8)
−6.8
(19.8)
−2.0
(28.4)
1.1
(34)
5.4
(41.7)
10.0
(50)
9.2
(48.6)
5.4
(41.7)
−1.0
(30.2)
−4.8
(23.4)
−9.7
(14.5)
−14.0
(6.8)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 64.7
(2.547)
47.3
(1.862)
40.4
(1.591)
65.1
(2.563)
58.5
(2.303)
40.9
(1.61)
28.2
(1.11)
53.3
(2.098)
96.4
(3.795)
119.2
(4.693)
83.1
(3.272)
65.8
(2.591)
762.9
(30.035)
Average snowy days 0.7 1.0 0.5 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.3 0.9 3.4
Average relative humidity (%) 71 68 63 63 64 61 56 60 67 73 72 72 65.8
Mean monthly sunshine hours 141.6 166.3 222.2 229.8 262.0 311.0 341.1 301.6 239.0 166.6 147.9 134.0 2,662.9
Source #1: Météo France [6] [7]
Source #2: Infoclimat.fr (humidity and snowy days, 1961–1990) [8]

Isi kandungan

Nîmes mengalami cuaca mediterranean yang mana paling panas di Perancis. Kedudukannya yang agak ke darat, arah selatan membawa udara panas ke atas kota semasa musim panas, manakala semasa musim sejuk agak dingin.

Data iklim untuk Nîmes (purata 1981–2010)
Bulan Jan Feb Mac Apr Mei Jun Jul Ogo Sep Okt Nov Dis Tahun
Rekod tertinggi °C (°F) 21.5
(70.7)
23.8
(74.8)
27.3
(81.1)
30.7
(87.3)
34.7
(94.5)
39.1
(102.4)
38.8
(101.8)
41.6
(106.9)
35.4
(95.7)
31.9
(89.4)
26.1
(79)
20.6
(69.1)
41.6
(106.9)
Purata tinggi °C (°F) 11.0
(51.8)
12.4
(54.3)
16.0
(60.8)
18.6
(65.5)
23.0
(73.4)
27.5
(81.5)
31.0
(87.8)
30.5
(86.9)
25.7
(78.3)
20.4
(68.7)
14.5
(58.1)
11.3
(52.3)
20.2
(68.4)
Purata rendah °C (°F) 2.7
(36.9)
3.2
(37.8)
5.8
(42.4)
8.3
(46.9)
12.1
(53.8)
15.8
(60.4)
18.7
(65.7)
18.4
(65.1)
14.9
(58.8)
11.5
(52.7)
6.5
(43.7)
3.6
(38.5)
10.2
(50.4)
Rekod terendah °C (°F) -12.2
(10)
-14.0
(6.8)
-6.8
(19.8)
-2.0
(28.4)
1.1
(34)
5.4
(41.7)
10.0
(50)
9.2
(48.6)
5.4
(41.7)
-1.0
(30.2)
-4.8
(23.4)
-9.7
(14.5)
−14.0
(6.8)
Kerpasan mm (inci) 64.7
(2.547)
47.3
(1.862)
40.4
(1.591)
65.1
(2.563)
58.5
(2.303)
40.9
(1.61)
28.2
(1.11)
53.3
(2.098)
96.4
(3.795)
119.2
(4.693)
83.1
(3.272)
65.8
(2.591)
762.9
(30.035)
% Kelembapan 71 68 63 63 64 61 56 60 67 73 72 72 65.8
Purata hari salji 0.7 1.0 0.5 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.3 0.9 3.4
Jam cahaya matahari 141.6 166.3 222.2 229.8 262.0 311.0 341.1 301.6 239.0 166.6 147.9 134.0 2,662.9
Sumber #1: Météo France [6] [7]
Sumber #2: Infoclimat.fr (humidity and snowy days, 1961–1990) [8]

The city derives its name from that of a spring in the Roman village. The contemporary coat of arms of the city of Nîmes includes a crocodile chained to a palm tree with the inscription COL NEM, for Colonia Nemausus, meaning the "colony" or "settlement" of Nemausus, the local Celtic god of the Volcae Arecomici. Veterans of the Roman legions who had served Julius Caesar in his Nile campaigns, at the end of fifteen years of soldiering, were given plots of land to cultivate on the plain of Nîmes. [9]

The city was located on the Via Domitia, a Roman road constructed in 118 BC which connected Italy with Spain.

Its name appears in inscriptions in Gaulish as dede matrebo Namausikabo = "he has given to the mothers of Nîmes" and "toutios Namausatis" = "citizen of Nîmes". [10]

Pra-sejarah Sunting

The site on which the built-up area of Nîmes has become established in the course of centuries is part of the edge of the alluvial plain of the Vistrenque River which butts up against low hills: to the northeast, Mont Duplan to the southwest, Montaury to the west, Mt. Cavalier and the knoll of Canteduc.

4000–2000 BC Sunting

The Neolithic site of Serre Paradis reveals the presence of semi-nomadic cultivators in the period 4000 to 3500 BC on the future site of Nîmes. The population of the site increased during the thousand-year period of the Bronze Age. The menhir of Courbessac (or La Poudrière) stands in a field, near the airstrip. This limestone monolith of over two metres in height dates to about 2500 BC, and must be considered the oldest monument of Nîmes.

1800–600 SM Sunting

Zaman Gangsa meninggalkan kesan-kesan perkampungan yang diperbuat daripada pondok-pondok dan dahan pokok.

600–49 BC Sunting

The Warrior of Grezan is considered to be the most ancient indigenous sculpture in southern Gaul. [ petikan diperlukan ] The hill named Mt. Cavalier was the site of the early oppidum, which gave birth to the city. During the third and 2nd centuries BC a surrounding wall was built, closed at the summit by a dry-stone tower, which was later incorporated into the masonry of the Tour Magne. The Wars of Gaul and the fall of Marseille (49 BC) allowed Nîmes to regain its autonomy under Rome.

Roman period Sunting

Nîmes became a Roman colony sometime before 28 BC, as witnessed by the earliest coins, which bear the abbreviation NEM. COL, "Colony of Nemausus". [11] Some years later a sanctuary and other constructions connected with the fountain were raised on the site. Nîmes was already under Roman influence, though it was Augustus who made the city the capital of Narbonne province, and gave it all its glory. It was also known as the birthplace of the family of Roman Emperor Antoninus Pius.

The city had an estimated population of 60,000 in the time of Augustus. [ petikan diperlukan ] Augustus gave the town a ring of ramparts six kilometres (3.7 batu) long, reinforced by fourteen towers two gates remain today: the Porta Augusta and the Porte de France. An aqueduct was built to bring water from the hills to the north. Where this crossed the River Gard between Uzes and Remoulins, the spectacular Pont du Gard was built. This is 20 kilometer (12 batu) north east of the city. Also, the Maison Carrée is one of the best preserved temples to be found anywhere in the territory of the former Roman Empire it later inspired the design of the Virginia State Capitol at Richmond. Nothing remains of some other monuments, the existence of which is known from inscriptions or architectural fragments found in the course of excavations. It is known that the town had a civil basilica, a curia, a gymnasium and perhaps a circus. The amphitheatre dates from the end of the 2nd century AD and was one of the largest amphitheatres in the Empire.

Dimensions of the largest amphitheatres of the Roman Empire
Colosseum (Rome, Italy) 188 × 156 m
Capua (Italy) 167 × 137 m
Italica (Spain): 157 × 134 m
Tours 156 × 134 m
Carthage (Tunisia) 156 × 128 m
Autun 154 × 130 m
Nîmes 133 × 101 m

Emperor Constantine endowed the city with baths. It became the seat of the Diocesan Vicar, the chief administrative officer of southern Gaul.

The town was prosperous until the end of the 3rd century – during the 4th and 5th centuries, the nearby town of Arles enjoyed more prosperity. In the early 5th century the Praetorian Prefecture was moved from Trier in northeast Gaul to Arles. The Visigoths finally captured the city from the Romans in 473 AD.

4th–13th centuries Sunting

After the Roman period, in the days of invasion and decadence, the Christian Church, already established in Gaul since the 1st century AD, appeared be the last refuge of classical civilization – it was remarkably organized and directed by a series of Gallo-Roman aristocrats. However, when the Visigoths were accepted in the Roman Empire, Nîmes was included in their territory (472), even after the Frankish victory at the Battle of Vouillé (507). The urban landscape went through transformation with the Goths, but much of the heritage of the Roman era remained largely intact.

By 725, the Muslim Umayyads had conquered the whole Visigothic territory of Septimania including Nîmes. In 736-737, Charles Martel and his brother led an expedition to Septimania and Provence, and largely destroyed the city (in the hands of Umayyads allied with the local Gallo-Roman and Gothic nobility), including the amphitheatre, thereafter heading back north. The Muslim government came to an end in 752, when Pepin the Short captured the city. In 754, an uprising took place against the Carolingian king, but was put down and count Radulf, a Frank, appointed as master of the city. After the war events, Nîmes was now only a shadow of the opulent Roman city it once had been. The local authorities installed themselves in remains of the amphitheatre.

Carolingian rule brought relative peace, but feudal times in the 12th century brought local troubles, which lasted until the days of St. Louis. During that period Nîmes was jointly administered by a lay power resident in the old amphitheatre, where lived the Viguier and the Knights of the Arena, and the religious power based in the Bishop's palace complex, around the cathedral, its chapter and the Bishop's house meanwhile the city was represented by four Consuls, who sat in the Maison Carrée.

Despite incessant feudal squabbling, Nîmes saw some progress both in commerce and industry as well as in stock-breeding and associated activities.

After the last effort by Raymond VII of Toulouse, St. Louis managed to establish royal power in the region which became Languedoc. Nîmes thus entered finally into the hands of the King of France.

Zaman serbuan Sunting

Semasa kurun ke-14 dan 15, Lembah Rhone mengalami siri-siri serbuan berterusan yang menghancurkan ekonomi dan menyebabkan kebuluran. Adat resam dilupakan, kekacauan agama menyebabkan (lihat Perang Agama Perancis) dan epidemik, kesemuanya mejejaskan bandar ini. Nîmes, yang mana merupakan salah sebuah kubu kuat Protestant, menghadapi tekanan berskala penuh dan konfrontasi perang saudara (termasuk pembunuha beramai-ramai Michelade) yang mana berlanjutan sehingga pertengahan kurun ke-17, tambah sengsara berlakunya kejadian wabak.

Kurun ke-17 sehingga Revolusi Perancis Sunting

Pada pertengahan kurun ke-17, Nîmes menikmati satu zaman kemakmuran. Pertambahan penduduk menyebabkan kota dibesarkan, dan perumahan setinggan digantikan. Notre-Dame-Saint-Castor, istana Bishop dan pelbagai rumah agam (Hotel) telah dibina semula. Pembaharuan ini menguatkan industri pembuatan dan pekerjaan industri di kota ini, jumlah penduduk meningkat daripada 21,000 kepada 50,000 orang. Pada zaman ini juga dibina taman-taman pancur, Quais de la Fontaine telah dibina di kawasan sekeliling Maison Carrée dan Amphitheatre telah dibersihkan daripada pencerobohan, sementara keseluruhan penduduk mendapat manfaat daripada kemakmuran yang dinikmati.

Dari Revolusi Perancis sehingga kini Sunting

Berikutan dengan krisis ekonomi yang melanda teruk Nîmes, zaman Revolusi menghasilkan penyangak politik dan agama. Keganasan Putih ditambah dengan malapetaka semulajadi and kemelesetan ekonomi, menyebabkan pembunuhan, penjarahan dan pembakaran dengan senjaga berlarutan sehingga tahun 1815. Undang-undang kemudian berjaya dikuatkuasakan dan Nîmes menjadi sebuah kota metropolis bagi Bas-Languedoc, mempelbagaikan industrinya. Pada masa yang sama, kawasan sekitarnya mengadaptasi keperluan pasaran dan berkongsi peningkatan kekayaan.

Semasa Perang Dunia II, pejuang penentang Maquis, Jean Robert dan Vinicio Faïta dihukum bunuh di Nîmes pada 22 April 1943. Perkarangan Nîmes pula dibom oleh pesawat pengebom Amerika pada tahun 1944.

2º Régiment Etranger d'Infanterie (2ºREI), rejimen infantri bermotor utama dalam Legion Asing Perancis ditempatkan di Nîmes sejak tahun 1984. [ petikan diperlukan ]


Nîmes

The city derives its name from that of a spring in the Roman village. The contemporary coat of arms of the city of Nîmes includes a crocodile chained to a palm tree with the inscription COLNEM, for Colonia Nemausus, meaning the "colony" or "settlement" of Nemausus, the local Celtic god of the Volcae Arecomici. Veterans of the Roman legions who had served Julius Caesar in his Nile campaigns, at the end of fifteen years of soldiering, were given plots of land to cultivate on the plain of Nîmes.

The city was located on the Via Domitia, a Roman road constructed in 118 BC which connected Italy to Spain.

Its name appears in inscriptions in Gaulish as dede matrebo Namausikabo = "he has given to the mothers of Nîmes" and "toutios Namausatis" = "citizen of Nîmes".

The site on which the built-up area of Nîmes has become established in the course of centuries is part of the edge of the alluvial plain of the Vistrenque River which butts up against low hills: to the northeast, Mont Duplan to the southwest, Montaury to the west, Mt. Cavalier and the knoll of Canteduc.

The Neolithic site of Serre Paradis reveals the presence of semi-nomadic cultivators in the period 4000 to 3500 BC on the future site of Nîmes. The population of the site increased during the thousand-year period of the Bronze Age. The menhir of Courbessac (or La Poudrière) stands in a field, near the airstrip. This limestone monolith of over two metres in height dates to about 2500 BC, and must be considered the oldest monument of Nîmes.

The Bronze Age has left traces of a village of huts and branches.

The Warrior of Grezan is considered to be the most ancient indigenous sculpture in southern Gaul. The hill named Mt. Cavalier was the site of the early oppidum, which gave birth to the city. During the third and 2nd centuries BC a surrounding wall was built, closed at the summit by a dry-stone tower, which was later incorporated into the masonry of the Tour Magne. The Wars of Gaul and the fall of Marseille (49 BC) allowed Nîmes to regain its autonomy under Rome.

Gallo-Roman period Pont du Gard from the south bank Maison Carrée - West side.

Nîmes became a Roman colony sometime before 28 BC, as witnessed by the earliest coins, which bear the abbreviation NEM. COL, "Colony of Nemausus". Some years later a sanctuary and other constructions connected with the fountain were raised on the site. Nîmes was already under Roman influence, though it was Augustus who made the city the capital of Narbonne province, and gave it all its glory.

The city had an estimated population of 60,000 in the time of Augustus. Augustus gave the town a ring of ramparts six kilometres long, reinforced by fourteen towers two gates remain today: the Porta Augusta and the Porte de France. An aqueduct was built to bring water from the hills to the north. Where this crossed the River Gard between Uzes and Remoulins, the spectacular Pont du Gard was built. This is 20 km north east of the city. Also, the Maison Carrée is one of the best preserved temples to be found anywhere in the territory of the former Roman Empire. Nothing remains of certain monuments, the existence of which is known from inscriptions or architectural fragments found in the course of excavations. It is known that the town had a civil basilica, a curia, a gymnasium and perhaps a circus. The amphitheatre dates from the end of the 2nd century AD. The family of Roman Emperor Antoninus Pius came from Nemausus.

Emperor Constantine endowed the city with baths. It became the seat of the Diocesan Vicar, the chief administrative officer of southern Gaul.

The town was prosperous until the end of the 3rd century – during the 4th and 5th centuries, the nearby town of Arles enjoyed more prosperity. In the early 5th century the Praetorian Prefecture was moved from Trier in northeast Gaul to Arles. The city was finally captured from the Romans by the Visigoths in 473 AD.

The temple of Diane The Porta Augusta The Castellum divisorium on the aqueduct 4th󈝹th centuries Nemausus, Nismes Civitas Narbonensis surrounded by its walls, after Sebastian Münster (1569), 1572

After the Gallo-Roman period, in the days of invasion and decadence, the Christian Church, already established in Gaul since the 1st century AD, appeared be the last refuge of classical civilization – it was remarkably organized and directed by a series of Gallo-Roman aristocrats. However, when the Visigoths were accepted in the Roman Empire, Nîmes was included in their territory (472), even after the Frankish victory at the Battle of Vouillé (507). The urban landscape went through transformation with the Goths, but much of the heritage of the Roman era remained largely intact.

By 725, the Muslim Umayyads had conquered the whole Visigothic territory of Septimania, Nîmes inclusive. In 736-737, Charles Martel and his brother led an expedition to Septimania and Provence, and largely destroyed the city (in the hands of Umayyads allied with the local Gallo-Roman and Gothic nobility), including the amphitheatre, thereafter heading back north. The Muslim government came to an end in 752, when Pepin the Short captured the city. In 754, an uprising took place against the Carolingian king, but was put down and certain count Radulf, a Frank, appointed as master of the city. After the war events, Nîmes was now only a shadow of the opulent Gallo-Roman city it once had been. The local authorities installed themselves in remains of the amphitheatre.

Carolingian rule brought relative peace, but feudal times in the 12th century brought local troubles, which lasted until the days of St. Louis. During that period Nîmes was jointly administered by a lay power resident in the old amphitheatre, where lived the Viguier and the Knights of the Arena, and the religious power based in the Bishop's palace complex, around the cathedral, its chapter and the Bishop's house meanwhile the city was represented by four Consuls, who sat in the Maison Carrée.

Despite incessant feudal squabbling, Nîmes saw some progress both in commerce and industry as well as in stock-breeding and associated activities.

After the last effort by Raymond VII of Toulouse, St. Louis managed to establish royal power in the region which became Languedoc. Nîmes thus entered finally into the hands of the King of France.

Ruins at Nîmes, painting by Hubert Robert. Period of invasions

During the 14th and 15th centuries the Rhone Valley underwent an uninterrupted series of invasions which ruined the economy and caused famine. Customs were forgotten, religious troubles developed (see French Wars of Religion) and epidemics, all of which affected the city. Nîmes, which was one of the Protestant strongholds, felt the full force of repression and fratricidal confrontations (including the Michelade massacre) which continued until the middle of the 17th century, adding to the misery of periodic outbreaks of plague.

17th century to the French Revolution

In the middle of the 17th century Nîmes experienced a period of prosperity. Population growth caused the town to expand, and slum housing to be replaced. Also to this period dates the reconstruction of Notre-Dame-Saint-Castor, the Bishop's palace and numerous mansions (Hotels). This "renaissance" strengthened the manufacturing and industrial vocation of the city, the population rising from 21,000 to 50,000 inhabitants.

Les Quais de la Fontaine, the embankments of the spring that provided water for the city, the first civic gardens of France, were laid out in 1738󈞣.

Also in this period the Fountain gardens, the Quais de la Fontaine, were laid out, the areas surrounding the Maison Carrée and the Amphitheatre were cleared of encroachments, whilst the entire population benefited from the atmosphere of prosperity.

From the French Revolution to the present

Following a European economic crisis that hit Nîmes with full force, the Revolutionary period awoke slumbering demons of political and religious antagonism. The White Terror added to natural calamities and economic recession, produced murder, pillage and arson until 1815. Order was however restored in the course of the century, and Nîmes became the metropolis of Bas-Languedoc, diversifying its industry towards new kinds of activity. At the same time the surrounding countryside adapted to market needs and shared in the general increase of wealth.


History

The city derives its name from that of a spring in the Roman village. The contemporary coat of arms of the city of Nîmes includes a crocodile chained to a palm tree with the inscription COLNEM, for Colonia Nemausus, meaning the "colony" or "settlement" of Nemausus, the local Celtic god of the Volcae Arecomici. Veterans of the Roman legions who had served Julius Caesar in his Nile campaigns, at the end of fifteen years of soldiering, were given plots of land to cultivate on the plain of Nîmes. [ 1 ]

The city was located on the Via Domitia, a Roman road constructed in 118 BC which connected Italy to Spain.

Prehistory

The site on which the built-up area of Nîmes has become established in the course of centuries is part of the edge of the alluvial plain of the Vistrenque River which butts up against low hills: to the northeast, Mont Duplan to the southwest, Montaury to the west, Mt. Cavalier and the knoll of Canteduc.

4000–2000 BC

The Neolithic site of Serre Paradis reveals the presence of semi-nomadic cultivators in the period 4000 to 3500 BC on the future site of Nîmes. The population of the site increased during the thousand-year period of the Bronze Age. The menhir of Courbessac (or La Poudrière) stands in a field, near the airstrip. This limestone monolith of over two metres in height dates to about 2500 BC, and must be considered the oldest monument of Nîmes.

1800–600 BC

The Bronze Age has left traces of a village of huts and branches.

600–49 BC

The Warrior of Grezan is considered to be the most ancient indigenous sculpture in southern Gaul. [ citation needed ] The hill named Mt. Cavalier was the site of the early oppidum, which gave birth to the city. During the third and 2nd centuries BC a surrounding wall was built, closed at the summit by a dry-stone tower, which was later incorporated into the masonry of the Tour Magne. The Wars of Gaul and the fall of Marseille (49 BC) allowed Nîmes to regain its autonomy under Rome.

Gallo-Roman period

Nîmes became a Roman colony sometime before 28 BC, as witnessed by the earliest coins, which bear the abbreviation NEM. COL, "Colony of Nemausus". [ 2 ] Some years later a sanctuary and other constructions connected with the fountain were raised on the site. Nîmes was already under Roman influence, though it was Augustus who made the city the capital of Narbonne province, and gave it all its glory.

The city had an estimated population of 60,000 in the time of Augustus. Augustus gave the town a ring of ramparts six kilometres long, reinforced by fourteen towers two gates remain today: the Porta Augusta and the Porte de France. An aqueduct was built to bring water from the hills to the north. Where this crossed the River Gard between Uzes and Remoulins, the spectacular Pont du Gard was built. This is 20 km north east of the city. Nothing remains of certain monuments, the existence of which is known from inscriptions or architectural fragments found in the course of excavations. It is known that the town had a civil basilica, a curia, a gymnasium and perhaps a circus. The amphitheatre dates from the end of the 2nd century AD. The family of Roman Emperor Antoninus Pius came from Nemausus.

Emperor Constantine endowed the city with baths. It became the seat of the Diocesan Vicar, the chief administrative officer of southern Gaul.

The town was prosperous until the end of the 3rd century – during the 4th and 5th centuries, the nearby town of Arles enjoyed more prosperity. In the early 5th century the Praetorian Prefecture was moved from Trier in northeast Gaul to Arles. The city was finally captured from the Romans by the Visigoths in 473 AD.

4th–13th centuries

After the Gallo-Roman period, in the days of invasion and decadence, the Christian Church, already established in Gaul since the 1st century AD, appeared be the last refuge of classical civilization – it was remarkably organized and directed by a series of Gallo-Roman aristocrats. After the barbarian invasions, the population had to face incursions by Moors from Spain (AD 710). After failing to capture Narbonne, Charles Martel largely destroys the city, including the amphitheatre. The Muslim government came to an end in 754 under Pepin the Short. After the war events, Nîmes was now only a shadow of the opulent Gallo-Roman city it once had been. The local authorities installed themselves in remains of the the amphitheatre.

Carolingian rule brought relative peace, but feudal times in the 12th century brought local troubles, which lasted until the days of St. Louis. During that period Nîmes was jointly administered by a lay power resident in the old amphitheatre, where lived the Viguier and the Knights of the Arena, and the religious power based in the Bishop's palace complex, around the cathedral, its chapter and the Bishop's house meanwhile the city was represented by four Consuls, who sat in the Maison Carrée.

Despite incessant feudal squabbling, Nîmes saw some progress both in commerce and industry as well as in stock-breeding and associated activities.

After the last effort by Raymond VII of Toulouse, St. Louis managed to establish royal power in the region which became Languedoc. Nîmes thus entered finally into the hands of the King of France.

Period of invasions

During the 14th and 15th centuries the Rhone Valley underwent an uninterrupted series of invasions which ruined the economy and caused famine. Customs were forgotten, religious troubles developed (see French Wars of Religion) and epidemics, all of which affected the city. Nîmes, which was one of the Protestant strongholds, felt the full force of repression and fratricidal confrontations (including the Michelade massacre) which continued until the middle of the 17th century, adding to the misery of periodic outbreaks of plague.

17th century to the French Revolution

In the middle of the 17th century Nîmes experienced a period of prosperity. Population growth caused the town to expand, and slum housing to be replaced. Also to this period dates the reconstruction of Notre-Dame-Saint-Castor, the Bishop's palace and numerous mansions (Hotels). This "renaissance" strengthened the manufacturing and industrial vocation of the city, the population rising from 21,000 to 50,000 inhabitants.

Also in this period the Fountain gardens, the Quais de la Fontaine, were laid out, the areas surrounding the Maison Carrée and the Amphitheatre were cleared of encroachments, whilst the entire population benefited from the atmosphere of prosperity.

From the French Revolution to the present

Following a European economic crisis that hit Nîmes with full force, the Revolutionary period awoke slumbering demons of political and religious antagonism. The White Terror added to natural calamities and economic recession, produced murder, pillage and arson until 1815. Order was however restored in the course of the century, and Nîmes became the metropolis of Bas-Languedoc, diversifying its industry towards new kinds of activity. At the same time the surrounding countryside adapted to market needs and shared in the general increase of wealth.


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